terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 SUB-CRITICAL WATER: AN ORIGINAL PROCESS TO EXTRACT ANTIOXIDANTS COMPOUNDS OF WINE LEES

SUB-CRITICAL WATER: AN ORIGINAL PROCESS TO EXTRACT ANTIOXIDANTS COMPOUNDS OF WINE LEES

Abstract

Wine lees are quantitatively the second most important wine by-product after grape stems and marc [1]. In order to recycle, distilleries recovered ethanol and tartaric acid contained in wine lees but yeast biomass is often unused. It has already been demonstrated that this yeast biomass could be upcycled to produce yeast extracts of interest for wine chemical stabilization [2]. In addition, it is well known that lees, during aging, release compounds that preserve wine from oxidation. Currently, very few studies have focused on the characterization and valorisation of the antioxidant component of lees. Although the role of glutathione has been demonstrated [3], recent studies have shown that S- and N- containing compounds are the main contributors to the antioxidant metabolome of wine [4]. Thus, the valorisation of wine lees to obtain compounds with antioxidant capacity seems to be of great interest for the wine industry.

In order to obtain extracts with antioxidant properties from white wine lees, we studied the interest of subcritical water as a green extraction process. The extraction conditions (temperature, extraction duration and stirring speed) were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to maximize the antioxidant properties of the obtained extracts. The composition of the soluble fraction such as total phenolic content, protein, SH- compounds and glutathione was determined by spectrophotometry and LC-MS methods. Global antioxidant activity of extracts was determined by DPPH (radical-scavenging power), FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant potential) and OCR (Oxygen Consumption Rate) in model wine solution.

Results show that temperature is the key parameter for obtaining extracts with high antioxidant activity. Interestingly, we observe that the antioxidant potential does not seem to be related to the presence of a single molecule but rather to the presence of a pool of reducing compounds.

To conclude, subcritical water is a promising eco-sustainable process to obtain antioxidant compounds from wine lees. Such extracts could be used for a targeted application in oenology as well as in other sectors (food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals).

 

1. Dimou, Charalampia, Nikolaos Kopsahelis, Aikaterini Papadaki, Seraphim Papanikolaou, Ioannis K. Kookos, Ioanna Mandala, and Apostolis A. Koutinas. ‘Wine Lees Valorization: Biorefinery Development Including Production of a Generic Fermentation Feedstock Employed for Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Synthesis’. Food Research International 73 (July 2015): 81–87.
2. De Iseppi, Alberto, Matteo Marangon, Simone Vincenzi, Giovanna Lomolino, Andrea Curioni, and Benoit Divol. ‘A Novel Approach for the Valorization of Wine Lees as a Source of Compounds Able to Modify Wine Properties’. LWT 136 (January 2021): 110274.
3. Lavigne-Cruège, V. & Dubourdieu, D., 2002. Role of glutathione on development of aroma defects in dry white wines. In 13th International Enology Symposium, Trogus, H., Gafner, J., Sutterlin., Eds. International Association of Enology: Montpellier, France, pp 331-347
4. Romanet, Remy, Florian Bahut, Maria Nikolantonaki, and Régis D. Gougeon. ‘Molecular Characterization of White Wines Antioxidant Metabolome by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry’. Antioxidants 9, no. 2 (28 January 2020): 115.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Benjamin Poulain1,2, Delphine Winstel1,2, Axel Marchal1,2, Virginie Moine3, Claudia Nioi1,2

1. Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, INRAE, OENO, UMR 1366, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2. Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Bordeaux INP, INRAE, OENO, UMR 1366, ISVV, F-33170 Gradignan, France
3. Biolaffort, 11 rue Aristide Berges, 33270 FLOIRAC France

Contact the author*

Keywords

Wine lees, antioxidant, subcritical water, response surface methodology

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: LEVELS AND PATTERNS OBSERVED IN 2020 WINES FROM THE UNITED STATES WEST COAST

Smoke impact in wines is caused by a wide range of volatile phenols found in wildfire smoke. These compounds are absorbed and accumulate in berries, where they may also become glycosylated. Both volatile and glycosylated forms eventually end up in wine where they can cause off-flavors, described as “smoky”, “bacon”, “campfire” and “ashtray”, often long-lasting and lingering on the palate. In cases of large wildfire events, economic losses for all wine industry actors can be devastating.

INVESTIGATION OF MALIC ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION USING GC-MS, LC-MS, AND NMR DERIVED 13C-LABELED DATA

Malic acid has a strong impact on wine pH and the contribution of fermenting yeasts to modulate its concentration has been intensively investigated in the past. Recent advances in yeast genetics have shed light on the unexpected property of some strains to produce large amounts of malic acid (“acidic strains”) while most of the wine starters consume it during the alcoholic fermentation. Being a key metabolite of the central carbohydrate metabolism, malic acid participates to TCA and glyoxylate cycles as well as neoglucogenesis. Although present at important concentrations in grape juice, the metabolic fate of malic acid has been poorly investigated.

METHYL SALICYLATE: A TRENDY COMPOUND MARKER OF ZELEN, A UNIQUE SLOVENIAN VARIETY

The wine market interest for autochthonous varieties, particularly from less known wine regions, has significantly raised in the past few years. In that context, Slovenia, a small country from central Europe with a long winemaking tradition, is getting more and more attention, particularly through its range of unique regional varieties. Among them, Zelen, meaning “green” in Slovene, can only be found in the Vipava valley region, located on the western side of the country, near the border with Italy. When they are young, Zelen wines display very singular aromas reminiscent of rosemary, sage and white fruit. Despite its uniqueness, Zelen wine aromatic typicality is poorly documented in the literature.

RED WINE AGING WITHOUT SO₂: WHAT IMPACT ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITY?

Nowadays, the use of food preservatives is controversial, SO2 being no exception. Microbial communities have been particularly studied during the prefermentary and fermentation stages in a context of without added SO2. However, microbial risks associated with SO2 reduction or absence, particularly during the wine aging process, have so far been little studied. The microbiological control of wine aging is a key issue for winemakers wishing to produce wines without added SO2. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of different wine aging strategies according to the addition or not of SO2 on the microbiological population levels and diversity.

WINE AS AN EMOTIONAL AND AESTHETIC OBJECT: IMPACT OF EXPERTISE

Wine tasting has been shown to provide emotions to tasters (Coste et al. 2018). How will expertise impact this emotional response? Burnham and Skilleås (2012) reported that the cultural, experiential, and aesthetic competencies characterize an expert in wine compared to a novice. Although there is no consensual definition of an aesthetic experience, Burnham and Skilleås (2012) reported that aesthetic appreciation is “disinterested, normative for others and communicable” in comparison to sensory pleasure.