terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 SUB-CRITICAL WATER: AN ORIGINAL PROCESS TO EXTRACT ANTIOXIDANTS COMPOUNDS OF WINE LEES

SUB-CRITICAL WATER: AN ORIGINAL PROCESS TO EXTRACT ANTIOXIDANTS COMPOUNDS OF WINE LEES

Abstract

Wine lees are quantitatively the second most important wine by-product after grape stems and marc [1]. In order to recycle, distilleries recovered ethanol and tartaric acid contained in wine lees but yeast biomass is often unused. It has already been demonstrated that this yeast biomass could be upcycled to produce yeast extracts of interest for wine chemical stabilization [2]. In addition, it is well known that lees, during aging, release compounds that preserve wine from oxidation. Currently, very few studies have focused on the characterization and valorisation of the antioxidant component of lees. Although the role of glutathione has been demonstrated [3], recent studies have shown that S- and N- containing compounds are the main contributors to the antioxidant metabolome of wine [4]. Thus, the valorisation of wine lees to obtain compounds with antioxidant capacity seems to be of great interest for the wine industry.

In order to obtain extracts with antioxidant properties from white wine lees, we studied the interest of subcritical water as a green extraction process. The extraction conditions (temperature, extraction duration and stirring speed) were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to maximize the antioxidant properties of the obtained extracts. The composition of the soluble fraction such as total phenolic content, protein, SH- compounds and glutathione was determined by spectrophotometry and LC-MS methods. Global antioxidant activity of extracts was determined by DPPH (radical-scavenging power), FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant potential) and OCR (Oxygen Consumption Rate) in model wine solution.

Results show that temperature is the key parameter for obtaining extracts with high antioxidant activity. Interestingly, we observe that the antioxidant potential does not seem to be related to the presence of a single molecule but rather to the presence of a pool of reducing compounds.

To conclude, subcritical water is a promising eco-sustainable process to obtain antioxidant compounds from wine lees. Such extracts could be used for a targeted application in oenology as well as in other sectors (food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals).

 

1. Dimou, Charalampia, Nikolaos Kopsahelis, Aikaterini Papadaki, Seraphim Papanikolaou, Ioannis K. Kookos, Ioanna Mandala, and Apostolis A. Koutinas. ‘Wine Lees Valorization: Biorefinery Development Including Production of a Generic Fermentation Feedstock Employed for Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Synthesis’. Food Research International 73 (July 2015): 81–87.
2. De Iseppi, Alberto, Matteo Marangon, Simone Vincenzi, Giovanna Lomolino, Andrea Curioni, and Benoit Divol. ‘A Novel Approach for the Valorization of Wine Lees as a Source of Compounds Able to Modify Wine Properties’. LWT 136 (January 2021): 110274.
3. Lavigne-Cruège, V. & Dubourdieu, D., 2002. Role of glutathione on development of aroma defects in dry white wines. In 13th International Enology Symposium, Trogus, H., Gafner, J., Sutterlin., Eds. International Association of Enology: Montpellier, France, pp 331-347
4. Romanet, Remy, Florian Bahut, Maria Nikolantonaki, and Régis D. Gougeon. ‘Molecular Characterization of White Wines Antioxidant Metabolome by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry’. Antioxidants 9, no. 2 (28 January 2020): 115.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Benjamin Poulain1,2, Delphine Winstel1,2, Axel Marchal1,2, Virginie Moine3, Claudia Nioi1,2

1. Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, INRAE, OENO, UMR 1366, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2. Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Bordeaux INP, INRAE, OENO, UMR 1366, ISVV, F-33170 Gradignan, France
3. Biolaffort, 11 rue Aristide Berges, 33270 FLOIRAC France

Contact the author*

Keywords

Wine lees, antioxidant, subcritical water, response surface methodology

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

CHANGES IN CU FRACTIONS AND RIBOFLAVIN IN WHITE WINES DURING SHORT-TERM LIGHT EXPOSURE: IMPACTS OF OXYGEN AND BOTTLE COLOUR

Copper in white wine can be associated with Cu(II) organic acids (Cu fraction I), Cu(I) thiol species (Cu fraction II), and Cu sulfides (Cu fraction III). The first two fractions are associated with the repression of reductive aromas in white wine, but these fractions gradually decrease in concentration during the normal bottle aging of wine. Although exposure of white wine to fluorescent light is known to induce the accumulation of volatile sulfur compounds, causing light-struck aroma, the influence on the loss of protective Cu fractions is uncertain. Riboflavin is known to be a critical initiator of photochemical reac-tions in wine, but the rate of its decay under short-term light exposure in different coloured bottles and for wine of different oxygen concentrations is not well understood.

INFLUENCE OF GRAPE RIPENESS ON MACROMOLECULES EXTRACTABILITY FROM GRAPE SKIN TISSUES AND GRAPE SEEDS DURING WINEMAKING

A consequence of climate change is the modification of grape harvest quality and physico-chemical parameters of the obtained wine: increase in alcoholic degree, decrease in pH, and modification of the extractability of macromolecules, which leads to problems of microbiological, tartaric, colour and colloidal stability. In order to respond to these problems, the winemaking processes must be anticipated and adapted with a better knowledge of macromolecule extractability in grapes and their evolution, according to the grape variety, vintage and winemaking process. The purpose of this study was to understand 1) how the harvest date can influence the extractability of macromolecules, polysaccharides and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for wine stability 2) how to adapt the winemaking process to the harvest date in order to optimise wine quality.

THE IMPACT OF NON-SACCHAROMYCES YEASTS ON THE WHITE WINE QUALITY

Selected strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts showed a positive effect on sensory characteristics and aromatic complexity of wine. A sequential microbial culture of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae species is usually inoculated due to poorer fermentability of non-Saccharomyces species. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of white wines. We evaluated how individual combinations of sequential inoculations of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae species affect the aromatic compounds (volatile thiols and esters) and sensory characteristics of the wines.

THE EFFECT OF BENTONITE FINING ON THE VOLATILE AND NON-VOLATILE PROFILE OF ITALIAN WHITE WINES

Marselan wines have an unusual high proportion of seed derived tannins from grapes having high proportions of skins, which are rich in tannins. But the causes behind this characteristic have not yet been identified. In vintage 2023 wines were made at experimental scale (9 kg by experimental unit) from Arinarnoa, Marselan and Tannat Vitis vinifera grape cultivars by traditional maceration, and by techniques aimed to increase the wine content in skin derived tannin: addition of extraction enzymes, addition at vatting of grape-skin enological tannins, or by extended maceration, known to increase the seed derived tannin contents of wines. Macerations were of 7 days, except in the extended macerations that were of 15 days.

Grouping Vitis vinifera grapevine varieties based on their aromatic composition

Climate change is likely to impact wine typicity across the globe, raising concerns in wine regions historically renowned for the quality of their terroir1. Amongst several changes in viticultural practices, replacing some of the planting material (i.e. clones, rootstocks and cultivars) is thought to be one of the most promising potential levers to be used for adapting to climate change. But the change of cultivars also involves the issue of protecting the region’s wine typicity. In Bordeaux (France), extensive research has been conducted on identifying meridional varieties that could be good candidates to help guard against the effects of climate change2 while less research has been done concerning their impacts on Bordeaux wine typicity.