terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 INCREASING PINOT NOIR COLOUR DENSITY THROUGH SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION OF FLOCCULENT COMMERCIAL WINE YEAST SPECIES

INCREASING PINOT NOIR COLOUR DENSITY THROUGH SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION OF FLOCCULENT COMMERCIAL WINE YEAST SPECIES

Abstract

Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir can be challenging to manage in the winery as its thin skins require careful handling to ensure sufficient extraction of wine colour to promote colour stability during ageing.1 Literature has shown that fermentation with flocculent yeasts can increase red wine colour density.2 As consumers prefer greater colour density in red wines,3 the development of tools to increase colour density would be useful for the wine industry. This research explored the impact of interspecies sequential inoculation and co-flocculation of commercial yeast on Pinot noir wine colour. Six commercial non-Saccharomyces yeast species and two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were assayed based on their sedimentation rates in synthetic grape must, both individually and in combination, to determine flocculation ability. The most flocculent S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces spp. yeast pairings, RC212 + BIODIVA and VL3 + BIODIVA, were used in a 20 L-scale Pinot noir winemaking trial. Ul- traviolet-visible spectrophotometric measurements of wine colour parameters, and sensory evaluation of wine appearance, found that mixed species fermentations produced wines with greater colour density. Total and monomeric anthocyanin concentrations were lower in sequentially-inoculated wines, despite being the main source of young red wine colour. Pigmentation assays indicated a higher adsorption of anthocyanins by BIODIVA than S. cerevisiae, suggesting that greater amounts of cell wall mannoproteins in flocculent yeast may scavenge anthocyanins during fermentation, allowing for their subsequent release from the lees and potential for enhanced formation of copigments. Findings from this research have wide application in the industry to increase red wine colour intensity, particular in thin- skinned red grape varieties.

 

1. Carew, A. L.; Smith, P.; Close, D. C.; Curtin, C.; Dambergs, R. G. Yeast Effects on Pinot Noir Wine Phenolics, Color, and Tannin Composition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61 (41), 9892–9898. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf4018806.
2. Varela, C.; Bartel, C.; Nandorfy, D. E.; Borneman, A.; Schmidt, S.; Curtin, C. Identification of Flocculant Wine Yeast Strains with Improved Filtration-Related Phenotypes through Application of High-Throughput Sedimentation Rate Assays. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59579-y.
3. Parpinello, G. P.; Versari, A.; Chinnici, F.; Galassi, S. Relationship among Sensory Descriptors, Consumer Preference and Color Parameters of Italian Novello Red Wines. Food Res. Int. 2009, 42 (10), 1389–1395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.005.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Katasha S. MCCULLOUGH1,2, Yi YANG2, Melodie A. LINDSAY2 and Neill CULLEY2

1. School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland
2. School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland

Contact the author*

Keywords

Anthocyanins, Colour density, Pinot noir, Sequential inoculation

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

LARGE-SCALE PHENOTYPIC SCREENING OF THE SPOILAGE YEAST BRETTANOMYCES BRUXELLENSIS: UNTANGLING PATTERNS OF ADAPTATION AND SELECTION, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR INNOVATIVE WINE TREATMENTS

Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as the main spoilage yeast in oenology. Its presence in red wine leads to off-flavour due to the production of volatile phenols such as 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, whose aromatic notes are unpleasant (e.g. animal, leather, horse or pharmaceutical). Beside wine, B. bruxellensis is commonly isolated from beer, kombucha and bioethanol production, where its role can be described as negative or positive. Recent genomic studies unveiled the existence of various populations.

DOES LIGNIN AN ACCEPTABLE MARKER OF GRAPESEED MATURATION AND QUALITY?

Usually the winemaker consider polyphenols from the grape berry as an actor of the wine quality. There are frequently consider as a marker of grape maturity. It is commonly known that winemaker consider tannins and anthocyanins as main polyphenol actors for winemaking practices and wine quality. Here we will focus on the characterisation of lignins in grape seeds. Previous studies suggest that the seed is lignified [1], which could explain the change in colour of the seed when it reaches maturity and thus provide a reliable indicator for describing the maturity stage in the seed.

EFFECT OF OXIDATION ON LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT PHENOLIC FRACTION, SALIVARY PROTEINS PRECIPITATION AND ASTRINGENCY SUBQUALITIES OF RED WINES

Changes in the low molecular weight phenolic fraction, obtained by liquid-liquid microextraction technique, were studied after controlled oxidation of two typologies of Sangiovese wines (Brunello di Montalcino and Chianti Classico) belonging to two vintages (2017 and 2018). The fractions were characterized by LC-MS and quantified by HPLC. The most abundant extracted compounds were the phenolic acids. The effect of oxidation, vintage, and wine typology was stated by a three-ways ANOVA. Gallic and syringic acids significantly increased after oxidation while (–)-epicatechin decreased the most.

AROMA AND SENSORY CHARACTERIZATION OF XINOMAVRO RED WINES FROM DIFFERENT GREEK PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN, EFFECT OF TERROIR CHARACTERISTICS

The quality of wines has often been associated with their geographical area of production. The aim of this work was to characterize Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Xinomavro red wines from different geographical areas of Amyndeon and Naoussa in Northern Greece, elaborated with variables that contribute to their differentiation, such as soil characteristics, altitude, monthly average temperature and rainfall.
Xinomavro fruit parcels from different vineyards within the two PDO zones (5 PDO Naoussa and 6 PDO Amyndeon) were vinified following a standard winemaking process. A total of 25 aroma compounds were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous full scan and selected ion monitoring for data recording, and odor activity values (OAVs) were determined.

SIP and save the planet: a sensory and consumer exploration of australian wines made from potentially drought-tolerant white wine grapes

In order to attenuate the effects of climate change on the ability to cultivate quality wine grape vines in Australia, it is essential to adapt to the projected less favourable Australian climate scenarios. One response may be to convert a portion of the current grapevine plantings to those varieties that demand less water and can tolerate increased heat. This investigation aimed to (i) generate sensory profiles and (ii) obtain knowledge about Australian wine consumers’ preferences and opinions of Australian wines made from potentially drought tolerant, white wine grape varieties not traditionally cultivated in Australia. A Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) sensory panel (n = 49) generated sensory profiles of 44 commercial white wines made from 7 different white grape varieties (Arinto, Fiano, Garganega, Greco, Verdejo, Verdelho and Vermentino), plus two benchmark examples each of an Australian Riesling, Pinot Gris and Chardonnay wine.