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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 PREVALENCE OF OAK-RELATED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PREMIUM WINES

PREVALENCE OF OAK-RELATED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PREMIUM WINES

Abstract

Barrel fermentation and barrel-ageing of wine are commonly utilised practices in premium wine production. The wine aroma compounds related to barrel contact are varied and can enhance a range of wine aromas and flavours, such as ‘struck flint’, ‘caramel’, ‘red berry’, ‘toasty’ and ‘nutty’, as well as conventional oaky characters such as ‘vanilla’, ‘spice’, ‘smoky’ and ‘coconut’. A survey of commercially produced premium Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay wines was conducted, assessing the prevalence of compounds that have been proposed as barrel-ageing markers¹ including oak lactones, volatile phenols, furanones, aldehydes, thiazoles2,3, phenylmethanethiol⁴ and 2-furylmethanethiol.⁵

Accurate quantitative data is necessary to help understand the compounds which might influence these aromas but their analysis is often not a trivial undertaking. The furanones, especially furaneol, are difficult to measure accurately in wine as they are very polar. Thus, an improved stable isotope dilution assay was developed using automated liquid–liquid microextraction and multidimensional–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Also, the quantification of aldehydes was simplified using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with invial derivatisation. Thiazoles were quantified utilising gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrome-try. Other targeted volatile compounds were quantified using previously published stable isotope dilution assay methods that are routinely used in-house. Wide concentration ranges were found for many of the targeted aroma compounds and this information will direct further detailed studies.

 

1. Jarauta, I.; Cacho, J.; Ferreira, V. Concurrent phenomena contributing to the formation of the aroma of wine during aging in oak wood:  an analytical study. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53 (10), 4166-4177.
2. Gros, J.; Lavigne, V.; Thibaud, F.; Gammacurta, M.; Moine, V.; Dubourdieu, D.; Darriet, P.; Marchal, A. Toward a molecular understanding of the typicality of Chardonnay wines: identification of powerful aromatic compounds reminiscent of hazelnut. 
J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65 (5), 1058-1069.
3. Marchand, S.; de Revel, G.; Bertrand, A., Approaches to Wine Aroma:  Release of aroma compounds from reactions between cysteine and carbonyl compounds in wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000, 48, (10), 4890-4895.
4. Piano, F.; Petrozziello, M.; Vaudano, E.; Bonello, F.; Ferreira, V.; Zapata, J.; Hernández-Orte, P. Aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of Arneis Terre Alfieri DOC wines: the concentration of polyfunctional thiols and their evolution in relation to different ageing conditions. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2014, 239 (2), 267-277.
5. Blanchard, L.; Tominaga, T.; Dubourdieu, D. Formation of furfurylthiol exhibiting a strong coffee aroma during oak barrel fermentation from furfural released by toasted staves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49 (10), 4833-4835. 

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Tracey SIEBERT¹, Flynn WATSON¹, Mark SOLOMON¹, Maddy JIANG¹, Tabea SÖNCKSEN1,2, Lisa PISANIELLO¹, Leigh FRANCIS¹, Marlize BEKKER¹

1.The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Precinct, Hartley Grove cnr Paratoo Road, Urrbrae 5064, Australia
2.Technical University of Braunschweig, Universitätsplatz 2, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany

Contact the author*

Keywords

oak barrel, wine, aroma compounds, quantitation

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

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