OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Comparing the effects of vision, smell and taste in red wine quality judgments by experts: sensory cues, mental imagery and verbal representations as drivers of consensus in the multisensory space

Comparing the effects of vision, smell and taste in red wine quality judgments by experts: sensory cues, mental imagery and verbal representations as drivers of consensus in the multisensory space

Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the contributions of vision, smell and taste to red wine quality judgments by expert wine tasters. Whereas previous studies specified the modulating effects of gustatory traits [1], culture and expertise [2, 3], our objective was to gain a better understanding of the perceptual mechanisms, with special consideration of the psychological representations that predict consensus in red wine quality judgments. To this aim, we compared wine tasters’ responses in unconstrained (i.e., all senses involved) and constrained wine tastings (i.e., unisensory: “visual”, “smell” and “taste”; multisensory: “visual-smell”, “visual-taste” and “taste-smell”) over six wine tasting sessions. In each session, wine tasters rated the quality of 20 red wines from a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, premium vs. secondary wines), starting with an unconstrained tasting and then followed by a constrained tasting. We also collated predictors based on wine tasters’ responses to self-report questionnaires that assessed vividness of mental imagery in visual, smell, taste, somesthetic and wine contexts. Using a series of vocabulary tasks, we also evaluated whether lexical capacity predicts consensus in red wine quality judgments. 

Overall, our results showed a coherent quality concept across unconstrained and constrained wine tastings, with a clear quality distinction favoring premium wines. However, principal component analyses suggested a better quality judgement consensus with unisensory vision cues compared to all other sensory conditions. Going further, regression analyses also revealed specific drivers of red wine quality judgment consensus that are based on age, vividness of wine mental imagery, lexical capacity and consensus, as well as unisensory smell consensus and to a lesser degree, multisensory visual-taste consensus and unisensory taste consensus. 

Common experiences with wine, as well as the number of years tasting might promote strong vividness for wine representations (images and vocabulary), which in turn help predict wine tasters’ inclusion to the consensus involved with red wine quality judgments. Taken together, this study gives us an insightful look at the individual knowledge base, as well as the experience and representational cues that could delineate expert status. Further research in this direction could help promote informed teaching curricula in professional training and expert wine tasting.

[1] Saenz-Navajas, M.-P., Avizcuri, J.-M., Ballester, J., Fernandez-Zurbano, P., Ferreira, V., Peyron, D., et al. (2015). Sensory-active compounds influencing wine experts’ and consumers’ perception of red wine intrinsic quality. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 60, 400–411. 
[2] Saenz-Navajas, M.-P., Ballester, J., Pecher, C., Peyron, D., and Valentin, D. (2013). Sensory drivers of intrinsic quality of red wines: Effect of cultures and level of expertise. Food Research International, 54, 1506–1518. 
[3] Valentin, D., Parr, W. V., Peyron, D., Grose, C., and Ballester, J. (2016). Colour as a driver of Pinot noir wine quality judgments: An investigation involving French and New Zealand wine professionals. Food Quality and Preference, 48, 251-261.

DOI:

Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article

Authors

André Caissie, Laurent Riquier, Gilles De Revel, Sophie Tempère

Unité de recherche Oenologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France
INRA, ISVV, USC 1366 OEnologie, F-33140, Villenave d’Ornon, France.

Contact the author

Keywords

Wine tasting, Perceptual mechanisms, Mental Imagery, Vocabulary

Tags

IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019

Citation

Related articles…

Influence of irrigation frequency on berry phenolic composition of red grape varieties cultivated in four spanish wine-growing regions

The global warming phenomenon involves the frequency of extreme meteorological events accompanied by a change in rainfall distribution. Irrigation frequency (IF) affects the spatial and temporal soil water distribution but its effects on the phenolic composition of the grape have been scarcely studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of four deficit irrigation frequencies of 30 % ETo: one irrigation per day (T01), two irrigations per week (T03), one irrigation per week (T07) and one irrigation every two weeks (T15) on berry phenolic composition at harvest.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae intraspecies differentiation by metabolomic signature and sensory patterns in wine

AIM: The composition and quality of wine are directly linked to microorganisms involved in the alcoholic fermentation. Several studies have been conducted on the impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on volatile compounds composition after fermentation. However, if different studies have dealt with combined sensory and volatiles analyses, few works have compared so far the impact of distinct yeast strains on the global metabolome of the wine.

Evaluation of the effect of regulated deficit irrigation on Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon physiological traits and final fruit composition

Climate change establishes challenges, as well as opportunities for many sectors, and markedly the wine sector.

Co-design and evaluation of spatially explicit strategies of adaptation to climate change in a Mediterranean watershed

Climate change challenges differently wine growing systems, depending on their biophysical, sociological and economic features. Therefore, there is a need to locally design and evaluate adaptation strategies combining several technical options, and considering the local opportunities and constraints (e.g. water access, wine typicity). The case study took place in a typical and heterogeneous Mediterranean vineyard of 1,500 ha in the South of France. We developed a participatory modeling approach to (1) conceptualize local climate change issues and design spatially explicit adaptation strategies with stakeholders, (2) numerically evaluate their effects on phenology, yield and irrigation needs under the high-emissions climate change scenario RCP 8.5, and (3) collectively discuss simulation results. We organized five sets of workshops, with in-between modeling phases. A process-based model was developed that allowed to evaluate the effects of six technical options (late varieties, irrigation, water saving by reducing canopy size, adjusting cover cropping, reducing density, and shading) with various distributions in the watershed, as well as vineyard relocation. Overall, we co-designed three adaptation strategies. Delay harvest strategy with late varieties showed little effects on decreasing air temperature during ripening. Water constraint limitation strategy would compensate for production losses if disruptive adaptations (e.g. reduced density) were adopted, and more land got access to irrigation. Relocation strategy would foster high premium wine production in the constrained mountainous areas where grapevine is less impacted by climate change. This research shows that a spatial distribution of technical changes gives room for adaptation to climate change, and that the collaboration with local stakeholders is a key to the identification of relevant adaptation. Further research should explore the potential of adaptation strategies based on soil quality improvement and on water stress tolerant varieties.

Terroir, climat et sol

Le sol et le climat occupent une place prépondérante dans le concept de terroir, pour lequel l’OIV s’apprête à adopter une définition internationale. Les travaux de recherche qui ont été menés depuis une trentaine d’années sur ces thèmes et qui ont été, pour les plus importants, présentés dans les 7 premiers Congrès Internationaux des Terroirs Viticoles ont considérablement modifié les connaissances sur le fonctionnement des terroirs viticoles dans le monde et le comportement des consommateurs avertis par rapport aux vins de terroirs.