terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES ON THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF RED WINES

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES ON THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF RED WINES

Abstract

Global climate change is exerting a notable influence on viticulture sector and grape composition. The increase in temperature and the changes in rainfall pattern are causing a gap between phenolic and technological grape maturities [1]. As a result, the composition of grapes at harvest time and, consequently, that of wines are being affected, especially with regards to phenolic composition. Hence, wine quality is decreasing due to changes in the organoleptic properties, such as color and astringency, making necessary to implement new adaptive technologies in wineries to modulate these properties in order to improve wine quality.

The aim of this work is to study the effect of different viticultural practices, such as traditional cultivation, organic cultivation and the use of natural fertilizer on the phenolic composition of grapes. In addition, the effect on wine phenolic composition of using tanks made of different materials (stainless steel tanks, oak wood barrels/tanks or earthenware vats) at different stages of winemaking and aging was evaluated over three vintages. The detailed phenolic composition of grapes and wines was determined by HPLC-DAD-MS [2].

Results obtained showed that the use of natural fertilizer did not cause significant differences in the pigment composition of grapes. However, a combination of organic cultivation with natural fertilizer significantly increased the total content of pigments and flavanols when compared to traditional cultivation with no fertilization. Regarding wines, higher levels of total flavanols and anthocyanins were observed when alcoholic fermentation (AF) was carried out in stainless steel tanks than when wines were fermented in earthenware vats. In the first ones (AF in stainless steel tanks), the type of container (oak barrels or earthenware) employed for the subsequent malolactic fermentation (MLF) did not have a significant influence in their phenolic composition. However, higher levels of phenolic compounds were observed in wines with AF made in stainless steel tanks and MLF in earthenware vats than in wines in which both fermentation processes occurred in earthenware vats. The obtained results showed that the type of tank as well as the stage at which it is used might have a significant influence on the phenolic composition of the wines. This could allow envisaging the most adequate tanks for each step of winemaking and aging in order to obtain wines with an adequate phenolic composition.

 

1. Mira de Orduña, R. 2017. Food Research International, 43, 1844-1855
2. García-Estévez, I., et al. 2017. J. Agric. Food Chem., 65, 6359 

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Rebeca Ferreras Charro1

1. Grupo de Investigación en Polifenoles, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, E37007, Spain

Contact the author*

Keywords

red wine, phenolic compounds, earthenware vats, HPLC-DAD-MS

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

OENOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF PINKING IN WHITE WINE

The pinking of in white wine is the turning of color from yellow to salmon hue. White wines obtained from certain grape varieties (e.g. Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Riesling, Trebbiano di Lugana) showed to be susceptible to pinking [1] that has been evaluated by an assay providing the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Even if its appearance does not seem to affect the sensory properties [2], strategies are necessary for its removal. Nowadays, the treatment with polyvinylpolipirroline (PVPP) was reported to significantly decrease the pink color [3].

HOW OXYGEN CONSUMPTION INFLUENCES RED WINES VOLTAMMETRIC PROFILE

Phenolic compounds play a central role in sensory characteristics of wine, such as colour, mouthfeel, flavour and determine its shelf life. Furthermore, the major non-enzymatic wine oxidation process is due to the catalytic oxidation of phenols in quinones. Due their importance, during the years have been developed different analytical methods to monitor the concentration of phenols in wine, such as Folin-Ciocalteu method, spectrophotometric techniques and HPLC. These methods can also be used to follow some oxidation-related chemical transformations.

EFFECTS OF LEAF REMOVAL AT DIFFERENT BUNCHES PHENOLOGICAL STAGES ON FREE AND GLYCOCONJUGATE AROMAS OF SKINS AND PULPS OF TWO ITALIAN RED GRAPES

Canopy-management practices are applied in viticulture to improve berries composition and quality, having a great impact on primary and secondary grape metabolism. Among these techniques, cluster zone leaf removal (defoliation) is widely used to manage air circulation, temperature and light radiation of grape bunches and close environment. Since volatiles are quantitatively and qualitatively influenced by the degree of fruit ripeness, the level of solar exposure, and the thermal environment in which grapes ripen, leaf removal has been shown to affect volatile composition of grape berries [1].

REDUCING NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ALTERS PHENOLIC PROFILES OF VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. CABERNET GERNISCHT WINE OF YANTAI, CHINA

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is important for grape growth and the quality of wine. It is essential to address the mismatch between N application and wine composition. Cabernet Gernischt (Vitis vinifera L.), as one of the main wine-grape cultivars in China, was introduced to Yantai wine region in 1892. This grape cultivar is traditionally used for quality dry red wine with fruit, spices aroma, ruby red and full-bodied wines. In order to regulate vine growth and improve grape and wine quality, Cabernet Gernischt grapevines were subjected to decreased levels of N treatments, compared to normal N supply treatment, during grape growing seasons of 2019 and 2020.

TARTARIC STABILIZATION MAY AFFECT THE COLOR AND POLYPHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF TANNAT RED WINES FROM URUGUAY

Tartrate precipitation affects the properties of wines, due to the formation of crystals that cause turbidity, even after being bottled. The forced tartaric stabilization is carried out frequently for young wines, through various physicochemical procedures. The traditional treatment for tartaric stabilization is refrigeration, but it can have a negative effect on wine’s sensory properties, and particularly on the color of red wines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different tartaric stabilization options on the color and phenolic composition of Tannat red wines from Uruguay.