GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2019 9 Piloting grape ripening in a global warming scenario: feasible techniques are available

Piloting grape ripening in a global warming scenario: feasible techniques are available

Abstract

Under the pressure of global warming, several wine grape growing regions around the world are increasingly suffering from advanced and compressed phenology; endangering wine character while also creating serious logistic problems. From a physiological standpoint, the issue of delaying ripening is not simple as, in several instances, only a few processes must be delayed (i.e. sugar accumulation into the berries) while other events such as pigmentation and accumulation of other important phenolic compounds should proceed at a normal rate. Thus, the issue of decoupling technological maturity from phenolic maturity is another important consideration. Over the last decades, several research groups have endeavored to establish alternate cultural practices aimed at addressing this decoupling. In some cases, special applications of quite robust and well known practices regarding physiological principles have been utilized, however some completely new techniques are also being studied. In figure 1 of the review, we offer a panorama of the available tools and in the text we elaborate on those having provided most reliable and consistent results under an array of genotypes and environmental conditions. Among these, primary focus is given to post‐veraison—apical to the cluster—leaf removal (that can also be suitably replaced by applications of anti‐transpirants); the use of kaolin against multiple summers’ stresses; and a drastic version of late winter pruning having the potential to postpone ripening into a cooler period with improved grape composition and a limited negative impact on yield and storage reserves replenishment. 

DOI:

Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: GIESCO 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Stefano PONI, Tommaso FRIONI, Matteo GATTI

DIPROVES, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza (Italy)

Contact the author

Tags

GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

The impact of branched chain and aromatic amino acids on fermentation kinetics and aroma biosynthesis by wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

One of the major determinants of wine quality is the aroma. Wine aroma is the human perception of the matrix of grape and yeast derived volatiles and their interaction that contribute to flavour wine. Most common are higher alcohols, ester and aldehydes. In previous studies the formation of characteristic volatile compounds have been linked to the metabolism of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids
(BCAAs) in synthetic grape must. Here we report on an investigation to assess the impact of the initial amino acid concentration on the production of aroma compounds by the industrial yeast VIN13 grown in both synthetic and real grape musts.

Characterization of 25 white grape varieties from the variety collection of ICVV (D.O.Ca.Rioja, Spain)

The effects of climate change produce an increase in sugar concentration and a decrease in acidity, without reaching the optimum grape phenolic maturity [1]. The aim of this work was to characterize 25 white grape varieties

Volatile and phenolic profiles of wines closed with different stoppers and stored for 30 months

The aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile and phenolic profiles of three red and one rosé wines stored in bottles for 30 months. Four wines were provided by a winery located in South Tyrol

Anthocyanin composition and sensory properties of wines from Portuguese and international varieties cultivated in a hot and dry region of Portugal

The study of anthocyanins in wines and grapes has been the subject of numerous research works over the years due to their important role in enology regarding their contribution to wine sensory properties.

Adaptability of grapevines to climate change: characterization of phenology and sugar accumulation of 50 varieties, under hot climate conditions

Climate is the major factor influencing the dynamics of the vegetative cycle and can determine the timing of phenological periods. Knowledge of the phenology of varieties, their chronological duration, and thermal requirements, allows not only for the better management of interventions in the vineyard, but also to predict the varieties’ behaviour in a scenario of climate change, giving the wine producer the possibility of selecting the grape varieties that are best adapted to the climatic conditions of a certain terroir. In 2014, Symington Family Estates, Vinhos, established two grape variety libraries in two different places with distinctive climate conditions (Douro Superior, and Cima Corgo), with the commitment of contributing to a deeper agronomic and oenological understanding of some grape varieties, in hot climate conditions. In these research vineyards are represented local varieties that are important in the regional and national viticulture, but also others that have over time been forgotten — as well as five international reference cultivars. From 2017 to 2021, phenological observations have been made three times a week, following a defined protocol, to determine the average dates of budbreak, flowering and veraison. With the climate data of each location, the thermal requirements of each variety and the chronological duration of each phase have been calculated. During maturation, berry samples have been gathered weekly to study the dynamics of sugar accumulation, between other parameters. The data was analysed applying phenological and sugar accumulation models available in literature. The results obtained show significant differences between the varieties over several parameters, from the chronological duration and thermal requirements to complete the various stages of development, to the differences between the two locations, confirming the influence of the climate on phenology and the stages of maturation, in these specific conditions.