Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Effect of different foliar nitrogen applications on the must amino acids and glutathione composition in Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard

Effect of different foliar nitrogen applications on the must amino acids and glutathione composition in Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard


Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the most important winegrape varieties in Chile. However, temperature raise and decreased rainfall due to climate change can lead to grape quality decrease in certain areas. Amino acids are essential as nitrogen source for yeast but also directly affect grape quality serving as precursors of certain volatile compounds that enhance the wine bouquet. Besides, glutathione is an important tripeptide acting as antioxidant, preventing the appearance of browning pigments in must and exerts a protective effect in volatile compounds. Thus, increasing amino acid and glutathione content on grapes plays a crucial role in winemaking. Nitrogen foliar fertilization can be a useful strategy to achieve this aim because of the quick and efficient assimilation of applied products by plants. Therefore, the effect of different foliar nitrogen applications on must amino acid and glutathione composition on a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard was studied in order to increase the grape quality. Nitrogen treatments applied to the grapevines were urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg) and two commercial foliar fertilizers with amino acids on its composition (Basfoliar Algae (BA) and Nutrimyr Thiols (NT)). Two applications of 1 kg N/ha were sprayed first at the beginning of veraison and two weeks later. Must amino acid and glutathione were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Oenological parameters for each sample were also determined. Commercial nitrogen sprays increased the amount of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine and ornithine (NT), whereas BA increased the content of serine, glutamine, threonine, arginine, methionine and proline. Ur+S treatment had a better assimilation than Ur, increasing content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine and methionine. Arg treatment did not increase amino acid content, however it increased the amount of easily extractable anthocyanins, total anthocyanins and total polyphenol index. Foliar nitrogen applications of Arg, NT and BA increased considerably the glutathione concentration, from 2.62 mg/L in control samples to 26.48, 41.51 and 27.6 mg/L in Arg, NT and BA musts, respectively. These findings have oenological and viticultural interest for improving grape quality by enhancing must amino acid composition in high proline accumulating varieties as Cabernet Sauvignon.

Publication date: May 17, 2024

Issue: Macrowine 2016

Type: Poster


Teresa Garde-Cerdan*, Ana Gonzalo-Diago, Ana Martínez-Gil, Gaston Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic

*Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino

Contact the author


IVES Conference Series | Macrowine | Macrowine 2016


Related articles…

New biological tools to control and secure malolactic fermentation in high pH wines

Originally, the role of the malolactic fermentation (MLF) was simply to improve the microbial stability of wine via biological deacidification. However, there is an accumulation of evidence to support the fact that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also contribute positively to the taste and aroma of wine. Many different LAB enter into grape juice and wine from the surface of grape berries, cluster stems, vine leaves, soil and winery equipment. Due to the highly selective environment of juices and wine, only a few types of LAB are able to grow.

Effect of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic composition and extractability of red winegrapes cv Nebbiolo and Barbera

Wine industry is looking forward for innovative, safe and eco-friendly antimicrobial products allowing the reduction of chemical treatments in the grape defense and the winemaking process that can affect negatively the quality of the product. Ozone has been tested in food industry giving good results in preventing fungi and bacteria growth on a wide spectrum of vegetables and fruits, due to its oxidant activity and ability to attack numerous cellular constituents. Ozone leaves no chemical residues on the food surface, decomposing itself rapidly in oxygen. Gaseous ozone has been already tested for table grapes storage and on wine grapes during withering.

Sensory impacts of the obturator used for the Chasselas: study over the time

Many parameters affect the organoleptic characteristics of wine: internal parameters like the chemical composition or polyphenol content and external as for example storage conditions or the type of obturator. The aim of this study was to characterize sensorally the impacts of several type of obturator on a white wine: Chasselas. To determine the organoleptic characteristics of this wine, a quantitative descriptive analysis could be used. But rapid sensory methods were preferred in this project. Indeed these methods are an appropriate alternative to conventional descriptive methods for quickly assessing sensory product discrimination.

Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 from grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound, (-)-rotundone

(-)-Rotundone, an oxygenated sesquiterpene, is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapes1. It is considered as a significant compound notably in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold (16 ng L-1 in red wine, 8 ng L-1 in water) and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah (regionally called Shiraz) in Australia1, and then it was found in several grape varieties such as Duras, Grüner Veltliner, Schioppettino and Vespolina from Europe2, 3. Several environmental factors affecting the accumulation of (-)-Rotundone during the grape maturation, were reported such as ambient temperature4, soil properties and topography5, soil moisture from irrigation and light exposure in the bunch zone by leaf removal2.

Determination of metallic elements in Chilean wines by atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

The chemical composition of wines depends on series of variables such as the type of grape, edaphoclimatic conditions, and viticulture and winemaking practices employed during production. Metallic elements play a significant role during winemaking (e.g. as catalysts of oxidation reactions) and have been previously employed for the classification of wines according to provenance. In this work, we focused on the analysis of metallic elements (K, Na, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Co, Sn and As) in 145 Chilean wine samples (102 reds and 43 white wines), of seven grape varieties, and five of the major wine producing regions in Chile.