Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Study of the volatil profile of minority white varieties

Study of the volatil profile of minority white varieties

Abstract

The genetic material preservation is a priority issue in winemaking research. The recovery of minority grape varieties can control the genetic erosion, contributing also to preserve wine typical characteristics. In D.O.Ca. Rioja (Spain) the number of grown white varieties has been very limited, representing Viura the 91% of the cultivated white grape area in 2005, while the others, Garnacha Blanca and Malvasía riojana, hardly were grown. For this reason, a recovery and characterization study of plant material was carried out in this region. In 2008, the results obtained allowed the authorization of three minority white varieties: Tempranillo Blanco, Maturana Blanca and Turruntés. Tempranillo Blanco comes from a mutation of Tempranillo Tinto and it was picked up for the first time in La Rioja in 1988. Maturana Blanca and Turruntés have been grown since long time ago and were recovered from old vineyards. Tempranillo Blanco and Maturana Blanca are only authorized in D.O.Ca. Rioja, and therefore they can really contribute to wines differentiation, increasing the added value and providing wines with personal and marked characteristics. Turruntés, that is a synonym of Albillo Mayor, is cultivated in other Spanish regions. The variety is one of the main factors responsible for the must and wine aroma. In this study, the pre-fermentative volatile profile of five minority white varieties was determined during the 2014 vintage, in comparison to Viura, considering it as the reference variety. All the cultivars were grown in an experimental vineyard. The volatile compounds of these varieties were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. The results showed marked differences in the aromatic profile of the studied grape varieties. In all cases, C6 were the most abundant compounds (70 – 93%), followed by norisoprenoids (4 – 13%), carbonyl (0.6 – 4%), benzenoids (0.1 – 4%) and terpenoids (1.2 – 3.3%). Cv. Tempranillo Blanco highlighted by a high content of C6 compounds, greater than cv. Malvasía, Turruntés and Viura. The most representative compounds were hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal. Within norisoprenoids, (E)-β-damascenone and (Z)-β-damascenone were the most abundant compounds in cv. Garnacha Blanca and Malvasía. In these varieties a higher content of terpenoids, such as trans-geranyl-acetone, β-linalool and nerol oxide was observed. Both, norisoprenoids and terpenoids are the most odoriferous groups of compounds, with floral scents that play a key role in the varietal aroma. The content of benzenoids in cv. Malvasía and cv. Turruntés was higher than in the rest of varieties, being 2-phenylethanol the most important molecule. Tempranillo Blanco and Garnacha Blanca presented a significantly higher global aromatic content than Turruntés and Viura. Thus, minority white grape varieties can provide wines with interesting and marked aromatic characteristics.

Publication date: May 17, 2024

Issue: Macrowine 2016

Type: Poster

Authors

Ana Gonzalo-Diago*, Enrique García-Escudero, Estela Terroba-Pérez, Juana Martínez

*ICVV

Contact the author

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Macrowine | Macrowine 2016

Citation

Related articles…

Impact of elemental sulfur (S0) residues in Sauvignon blanc juice on the formation of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate

Elemental sulfur is a fungicide used by grape growers to control the development of powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Erysiphe necator. This compound is effective, cheap and has a low toxicity with no withholding period recommended. However, high levels of S0 residues in the harvested grapes can lead to the formation of reductive sulfur compounds that can impart taints and faults to the wine. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a very volatile and unpleasant sulfur compound which formation is connected to high residues of S0 in juice (10 – 100 mg/L).

How pressing techniques affect must composition and wine quality of Pinot blanc

This study investigates how the sensory profile of Pinot Blanc is affected from different maceration and pressing techniques. Grapes were sourced from four vineyards in the village Tramin in South Tyrol. For the experiment 200 kg of grapes from each vineyard site were hand picked the day before harvest for the commercial winery took place. Grapes were stored over night at 4°C, homogenized and processed in the experimental winery at Laimburg research centre the day after harvest. Four different pressing techniques were applied in duplicates of 100kg each.

Evaluating South African Chenin blanc wine styles using an LC-MS screening method

Sorting Chenin blanc is one of the most important white wine cultivars in South Africa. It has received a lot of attention and accolades in the past years and more research than ever is dedicated to this versatile cultivar. According to the Chenin blanc association of South Africa, there are three recognized dry wine styles, Fresh and Fruity (FF), Rich and Ripe Unwooded
(RRU), and Rich and Ripe Wooded (RRW). They are traditionally established with the aid of expert sensory evaluation, but the cost and the (subjective) human factor are aspects to be taken into account. A more objective and possibly robust way of assessing and attributing these styles can be the use of chemical analysis.

Correlations between sensory characteristics and colloidal content in dry white wines

Must clarification is an important step occurring just after grape extraction in the elaboration of white wine, consisting in a solid-liquid separation. Traditionally, low must turbidity, around 50-150 NTU, is generally reached in white winemaking in order to prevent reductive aromas and facilitating alcoholic fermentation. Alternatively, a higher turbidity (300 NTU or above) can be sought for reasons such as a better expression of grapes identity (terroir), or for getting a must matrix that could supposedly lead to wines having greater ageing potential.

Quantification of the production of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 during wine oxidation

Chemical studies aiming at assessing how a wine reacts towards oxidation usually focus on the characterization of wine constituents, such as polyphenols, or oxidation products. As an alternative, the key oxidation intermediate hydrogen peroxide H2O2 has never been quantified, although it plays a pivotal role in wine oxidation. H2O2 is obtained from molecular oxygen as the result of a first cascade of oxidation reactions involving metal ions and polyphenols. The produced H2O2 then reacts in a second cascade of oxidation to produce reactive hydroxyl radicals that can attack almost any chemical substrate in wine.