Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Supramolecular approaches to the study of the astringency elicited by wine phenolic compounds

Supramolecular approaches to the study of the astringency elicited by wine phenolic compounds

Abstract

The objective of this study is to review the scientific evidences and to advance into the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of astringency. Astringency has been described as the drying, roughing and puckering sensation perceived when some food and beverages are tasted (1). The main, but possibly not the only, mechanism for the astringency is the precipitation of salivary proteins (2,3). Between phenolic compounds found in red wines, flavan-3-ols are the group usually related to the development of this sensation. Other compounds, phenolic or not, like anthocyanins, polysaccharides and mannoproteins could act modifying or modulating astringency perception by hindering the interaction between flavanols and salivary proteins either because of their interaction with the flavanols or because of their interaction with the salivary proteins. Furthermore, the possible existence of synergism on astringency between phenolic substances (4) has recently arisen. Salivary proteins have been grouped in six main classes: histatins, statherin, cystatins, and proline-rich proteins (acidic, basic and glycosylated) (5). The possible existence of selective interactions between different types of wine phenolic compounds and different salivary protein classes could be responsible for the observed synergisms. To obtain further insights into the interactions between these compounds and salivary proteins that could explain the synergistic effect observed, we have studied the interactions between flavanols and salivary proteins by quenching of fluorescence and HPLC-DAD. Quenching constants calculated and chromatographic profiles obtained could partially explain the synergisms observed in the sensory evaluation of wine phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of other molecular species, in particular anthocyanins, in the interactions between flavanols and salivary proteins has also been studied. Results obtained confirm the existence of interactions between anthocyanins and salivary proteins which could hinder the interaction between flavanols and salivary proteins, affecting the perceived astringency.

References 1. Gawel, R.; Iland, P. G.; Francis, I. L. Food Quality and Preference 2001, 12, 83-94. 2. de Freitas, V.; Mateus, N. Current Organic Chemistry 2012, 16, 724-746. 3. Scollary, G. R.; Pasti, G.; Kallay, M.; Blackman, J.; Clark, A. C. Trends in Food Science & Technology 2012, 27, 25-36. 4. Ferrer-Gallego, R.; Henández-Hierro, J.M.; Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.; Escribano-Bailón, M.T. Food Research International 2014, 62, 1100-1107 (). 5. Humphrey, S. P.; Williamson, R. T. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 2001, 85, 162-169. Acknowledgement Thanks are due to Spanish MINECO for financial support (AGL2014-58486-C2-1-R)

Publication date: May 17, 2024

Issue: Macrowine 2016

Type: Poster

Authors

Teresa Escribano-Bailon*, Alba Ramos-Pineda, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, Ignacio García Estévez, Julian Rivas-Gonzalo, Monserrat Dueñas

*University of Salamanca

Contact the author

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Macrowine | Macrowine 2016

Citation

Related articles…

Phenolic profiles of minor red grape cultivars autochthonous from the Spanish region of La Mancha

The phenolic profiles of little known red grape cultivars, namely Garnacho, Moribel and Tinto Fragoso, which are autochthonous from the Spanish region of La Mancha (ca. 600,000 ha of vineyards) have been studied over the consecutive seasons of years 2013 and 2014. The study was separately performed over the skins, the pulp and the seeds, and comprised the following phenolic types: anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCADs), total proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their structural features. The selected grape cultivars belong to the Vine Germplasm Bank created in this region in order to preserve the great diversity of genotypes grown in La Mancha.

Evidence for terroir effect associated with botrytisation relatively to compounds implicated in typical aromas of noble rot sweet wines

Recent studies have demonstrated the role of certain lactones, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, and volatile thiols (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) in the over ripped aromas of noble rot sweet wines (Stamatopoulos et al. 2014ab). These compounds are partly formed during the maturation and under the activity of B. cinerea on grapes. This research was carried out in the vineyard of Sauternes with aim to better understand their genesis depending on the grape over-ripening on two different soil types during 3 vintages. Thus, the study was conducted, with the Sémillon grape, during vintages 2012, 2014 & 2015, at 4 stages of over-maturation of the grapes (healthy, pourri plein, pourri roti, pourri roti + 15 days) considering two vineyard plots with different soil characteristics (calcosol & peyrosol) planted with the 315 Sémillon clone and grafted on 101-14 rootstock respectively in 1981 and 1980 and cultivated with the same vineyard management. Volatile lactones were assayed by liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis and the precursors of 3-sulfanylhexanol by an adaptation of the method by Capone et al. 2010 (SPE-
UPLC/FTMS).

Prevention of wine oxidation during barrel aging: an innovative method to measure antioxidant

Wine oxidation is a problem that affects the freshness, the aromatic profile, the colour and also the mouthfeel of the wine. It mainly concerns white wines. Oxygen interactions with wine compounds lead to the phenomena cited above that are responsible for the depreciation of these wines. Barrel aging is a crucial step in the wine process because it allows many modifications as wine enrichment, colour stabilization, clarification and also a slow oxygenation of the wine. Effects of the oak barrel have to be known to prevent oxidation of the wine. We have been interested in the main antioxidant compounds released by oak barrels to the wine and we have developed an innovative method to reach directly these antioxidant compounds at the oak stave surface.

Trans-resveratrol concentrations in wines Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

This study evaluated the levels of trans-resveratrol in commercial wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from different valleys of Chile stilbenes. The Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted variety in Chile, being 38% of the total vineyard country. Chile is the fourth largest wine exporter in the world, so it is important to evaluate the Cabernet-Sauvignon wines in their concentration levels of trans-resveratrol and its relation to the benefits provided to human health in moderate consumption. Evaluation comprises commercial wines from different valleys of Chile and its relationship with climatic characteristics, soil and vineyard handling.

Intelligent article to control the internal pressure in continue in bottles

An intelligent packaging might, among others, provide information and allow monitoring of the quality of the packed product or its surrounding environment. A recent project on micro-flow wine bottles closed with aluminium screw cap and tightness liner, highlighted the importance of monitoring the internal overpressure continuously, in real-time and at least for 72 hours, since the internal pressure on the tightness liner and the micro-flow are related. Real-time and continuous measurements are not the standard methods of measurement of the overpressure, yet. The most used equipment for the determination of the pressure in wine bottle is the aphrometer, a destructive device that supplies a single value of pressure.