terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Mobilizing endogenous transposable elements for grapevine improvement: a genomic and epigenomic approach in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc

Mobilizing endogenous transposable elements for grapevine improvement: a genomic and epigenomic approach in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc

Abstract

Efforts to improve the New Zealand wine industry’s climate resilience and sustainability through grapevine improvement are limited by germplasm availability and a reliance on Sauvignon Blanc exports. To address this, we are working to generate a population of 12,000 individuals with unique genetic traits, from which to select future clones for major export varieties.

Sauvignon Blanc plantlets are being regenerated from embryogenic callus, using an approach designed to mobilise endogenous transposable elements as mutagens. Alongside early phenotypic characterisation, whole-genome genotyping and epigenotyping is being conducted using nanopore sequencing. To facilitate this, we produced a phased diploid telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the clone progenitor. Each 500 Mb haplotype exhibits over 99% completeness and accuracy (QV ~60), with genic and repetitive elements annotated.

To evaluate the robustness of methylation signals to experimental parameters, we used low-coverage nanopore skim sequencing. Genomic and epigenetic variations in New Zealand’s commercial germplasm were similarly characterised. Preliminary analysis of the initial clone set promises insights into mutational processes operating in this collection, which we expect to be dominated by transposable element movement and epigenetic dysregulation.

This research aims not only to enrich the clonal diversity for future New Zealand viticulture but also to shed light on aspects of transposon mutagenesis, epigenetic variability, and the function of mutated genes. It is anticipated that these findings will contribute to crop improvement efforts both in New Zealand and internationally, by advancing the understanding of somatic variability and epigenomics in agriculture.

DOI:

Publication date: June 13, 2024

Issue: Open GPB 2024

Type: Article

Authors

Darrell Lizamore1*, Annabel Whibley1, Bhanupratap Vanga1, Cen Liau1, Philippa Barrell2, Chris Winefield3, Solomon Wante1, Amy Hill1, Ellie Bradley1

Grapevine Improvement Team, Bragato Research Institute, Lincoln, New Zealand
2 Plant and Food Research Ltd., Lincoln, New Zealand
3 Dept. Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand

Contact the author*

Keywords

somatic mutations, transposable elements, nanopore sequencing, epigenetics

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Open GPB | Open GPB 2024

Citation

Related articles…

Simulating the impact of climate change on viticultural systems in various European vineyards

Aim: Global climate change affects regional climates and hold implications for wine growing regions worldwide (Jones, 2007, 2015; van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016). The prospect of 21st century climate change consequently is one of the major challenges facing the wine industry (Keller, 2010).

An analytical framework to site-specifically study climate influence on grapevine involving the functional and Bayesian exploration of farm data time series synchronized using an eGDD thermal index

Climate influence on grapevine physiology is prevalent and this influence is only expected to increase with climate change. Although governed by a general determinism, climate influence on grapevine physiology may present variations according to the terroir. In addition, these site-specific differences are likely to be enhanced when climate influence is studied using farm data. Indeed, farm data integrate additional sources of variation such as a varying representativity of the conditions actually experienced in the field. Nevertheless, there is a real challenge in valuing farm data to enable grape growers to understand their own terroir and consequently adapt their practices to the local conditions. In such a context, this article proposes a framework to site-specifically study climate influence on grapevine physiology using farm data. It focuses on improving the analysis of time series of weather data. The analytical framework includes the synchronization of time series using site-specific thermal indices computed with an original method called Extended Growing Degree Days (eGDD). Synchronized time series are then analyzed using a Bayesian functional Linear regression with Sparse Steps functions (BLiSS) in order to detect site-specific periods of strong climate influence on yield development. The article focuses on temperature and rain influence on grape yield development as a case study. It uses data from three commercial vineyards respectively situated in the Bordeaux region (France), California (USA) and Israel. For all vineyards, common periods of climate influence on yield development were found. They corresponded to already known periods, for example around veraison of the year before harvest. However, the periods differed in their precise timing (e.g. before, around or after veraison), duration and correlation direction with yield. Other periods were found for only one or two vineyards and/or were not referred to in literature, for example during the winter before harvest.

Smartphone as a tool for deficit irrigation management in Vitis vinifera  

Vine water status is one of the most influential factors in grape vigor, yield, and quality (Ojeda et al., 2002; Guilpart et al., 2014). Severe water deficits during the first stage of crop development (bud break to fruit set) impact yield in the current year and the following year. While during grape ripening, water availability impacts berry size, grape composition, and health status. Therefore, a correct assessment of plant water status allows for proper water management with an impact on grape yield and composition (McClymont et al, 2012; Pereyra et al., 2022).

Key genes in rotundone biosynthesis are affected by temperature, light, water supply, and nitrogen uptake

Rotundone accumulation and biosynthesis is a complicated process. Previous research highlighted that these phenomenons were affected under ecophysiological conditions by viticultural practices (e.g. defoliation or irrigation). Individually, these practices often impact several abiotic factors that are difficult to separate such as temperature, water or nitrogen status, or radiation. Such dissociation can be achieved under controlled environmental conditions using potted vines.

SENSORY EVALUATION OF WINE AROMA: SHOULD COLOR-DRIVEN DESCRIPTORS BE USED?

The vocabulary used to describe wine aroma is commonly organized according to color, raising the question of whether they reflect the reality of olfactory perception. Previous studies have assumed this convention of color-aroma matching, and have investigated color’s influence on the perception of aroma only in dyed white wine or in red wine from particular places of origin. Here 48 white and red varietal wines from around the world were evaluated in black glasses then in clear glasses by a panel of wine experts, who gave intensity ratings for aroma attributes commonly used by wine professionals. In black glasses, aromas conventionally associated with white wine were perceived in the red wines, and vice versa.