Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the current and future state of the wine sector in the context of climate change, where the goal was to obtain greater understanding on winegrowers’ perceptions and adaptations to a changing climate and its associated impacts. The study sought to provide both a global and regional perspective on these issues.
Methods and Results: Translated in 10 different languages, a survey was elaborated and address to winegrowers in 18 wine producing countries. The survey had a structure of 27 quantitative and qualitative questions based on past, present and future growing conditions. With 3625 questionnaires collected, results were compiled to provide a general context for each targeted country, while for the second database specific for France, results were analysed to consider the regional specificities to increase understanding on this subject. At international and regional level, the majority of winegrowers are observing a changing climate, recognising the shifts in temperatures and rainfall patterns. The level of awareness was higher than 80% for most countries. The observed impacts, especially in Europe, relate typically to an earlier onset in phenological stages and deviations in berry composition. However, impacts on vine yield and diseases are highly variable and less significant. Overall, countries such as Spain highlight the detrimental effects on wine quality, compared to countries such as UK perceiving the beneficial influences. These dissimilarities are also illustrated for French wine growing regions. At international and regional level, winegrowers display a strong awareness that continued climate changes are likely. As most are expecting climate changes to continue, winegrowers assigned various adaptation priorities to ensure the sustainability of grape growing and wine production. The latter depending on many contextual factors that shape winegrowers’ vulnerability to climate variations.
Conclusions: Using survey data collected from 18 wine producing countries, study findings have provided important insights on winegrowers’ perceptions and adaptations to a changing climate. Our study contributes to the sustainable development of well-targeted adaptation measures and strategies in the wine sector.
Significance and Impact of the Study: This study has a strong international dimension, allowing the entire wine industry to gain understanding on these issues on a large geographical scale. Such knowledge can offer key information for policy and research to better assist winegrowers in planning adaptation responses to uncertain long-term climate changes.
Keywords: Climate change, winegrowers’ perceptions, global wine industry
Authors: Etienne Neethling1*, Ronan Symoneaux1, Nathalie Ollat2, Amber Parker3, Hervé Quénol4
1ESA, USC 1422 INRA-GRAPPE, Ecole Supérieure d’Agricultures, 55 rue Rabelais, 49007 Angers, France
2INRA, UMR EGFV, ISVV Bordeaux Sciences Agro, 210 Chemin de Leysotte, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
3Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, PO Box 85084, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand
4CNRS, UMR 6554 LETG, Université Rennes 2, Place du Recteur Henri Le Moal, 35043 Rennes, France