Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Assessment of wine non-Saccharomyces yeast strains as promising producers of glutathione

Assessment of wine non-Saccharomyces yeast strains as promising producers of glutathione

Abstract

AIM: Glutathione (GSH) is a non-protein thiol naturally present in grape berries and produced by yeasts during fermentation. It has a strong antioxidant activity, thus can be added during winemaking to limit the oxidative phenomena of wine, preserving sensory characteristics and stability, ultimately promoting a healthier product by reducing the need for SO2 addition. A promising alternative approach could be the use of yeast starter cultures high-producers of this compound in situ, during the fermentation process, in substitution of external GSH addition. Since this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts is currently poorly investigated, the aim of this research was to evaluate the ability of three strains of non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts to produce GSH, both in synthetic media and in fresh grape must.

METHODS: Lachancea thermotolerans SOL13, Metschnikowia sp. FIANO12, and Starmerella bacillaris MALV45 were tested in single or sequential inoculations,with Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, in synthetic grape juice (SGJ) or in Pinot Grigio grape must, under static conditions, or in a medium optimized for GSH production (MGSH) in agitation (200 rpm). GSH concentration was determined using the Glutathione Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich). Population dynamics was evaluated by plate count and biomass dry weight, and fermentation kinetics through weight loss measurement.

RESULTS: A variability in GSH production was found among individual strains and growth conditions. Metschnikowia sp. FIANO12 showed the highest intracellular accumulation of GSH when cultivated alone in both synthetic media, and, as expected, higher levels in the optimized MGSH than in SGJ (4.59 vs. 0.19 nmol GSH/mg cells, respectively). In wine, fermentations with S. bacillaris MALV45 had the highest concentration of intracellular GSH, but the lowest content of wine-dissolved GSH. The maximum level of extracellular GSH (21 mg/L) was obtained in the sequential fermentation with L. thermotolerans SOL13, a significant increase compared to the control singly inoculated with S. cerevisiae.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study highlights a new potential interesting feature of NS yeasts to positively modify wine composition. The tested native strains, with previously demonstrated interesting oenological traits, showed a good capacity to accumulate GSH and to increase the concentration of this antioxidant compound in wine. Thus, the strategy of multi-starter fermentation can be a valuable tool to achieve a lower input winemaking. Future investigations are needed to assess the long-term stability of wine made from multi-starter fermentations with NS yeasts producers of GSH.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: We thank Nicolò Bersani for laboratory assistance.

DOI:

Publication date: September 3, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Renato L. Binati, Wilson J.F. LEMOS JUNIOR, Sandra TORRIANI

Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy, Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy, Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

Glutathione production, multi-starter fermentation, non-saccharomyces yeasts, saccharomycescerevisiae, winemaking, wine quality

Citation

Related articles…

Updating the Winkler index: An analysis of Cabernet sauvignon in Napa Valley’s varied and changing climate

This study aims to create an updated, agile viticultural climate index (similar to the Winkler Index) by performing in-depth analyses of current and historical data from industry partners in several major winegrowing regions. The Winkler Index was developed in the early twentieth century based on analysis of various grape-growing regions in California. The index uses heat accumulation (i.e. Growing Degree Days) throughout the growing season to determine which grape varieties are best suited to each region. As viticultural regions are increasingly subject to the complexity and uncertainty of a changing climate, a more rigorous, agile model is needed to aid grape growers in determining which cultivars to plant where. For the first phase of this study, 21 industry partners throughout Napa Valley shared historical phenology, harvest, viticultural practice, and weather data related to their Cabernet sauvignon vineyard blocks. To complement this data, berry samples were collected throughout the 2021 growing season from 50 vineyard blocks located throughout 16 American Viticultural Areas that were then analyzed for basic berry chemistry and phenolics. These blocks have been mapped using a Geographic Information System (GIS), enabling analysis of altitude, vineyard row orientation, slope, and remotely sensed climate data. Sampling sites were also chosen based on their proximity to a weather station. By analyzing historical data from industry partners and data specifically collected for this study, it is possible to identify key parameters for further analysis. Initial results indicate extreme variability at a high spatial resolution not currently accounted for in modern viticultural climate indices and suggest that viticultural practices play a major role. Using the structure of data collection and analyses developed for the first phase, this project will soon be expanded to other wine regions globally, while continuing data collection in Napa Valley.

Partial rootzone drying (PRD): strategic irrigation management as viticultural tool affecting plant physiology and berry quality

Partial rootzone drying (PRD) is an irrigation management technique designed to reduce water use in grapevines without a decline in yield, thereby increasing water use efficiency (WUE). The principle of PRD is to keep part of the root system at a constant drying rate to produce soil derived signals to above-ground plant organs to induce a

Stable or dynamic? How phenotypic plasticity could be key to select for grapevine adaptation?

Climate change will require the adaptation of agricultural systems and among the different means of adaptation, changing plant material is a promising strategy. In viticulture, different levels of diversity are currently exploited: clonal and varietal diversity for rootstocks and scions. A huge quantity of research aims to evaluate different genotypes in different environmental conditions to identify which ones are the best adapted and the most tolerant to future environmental conditions.

La perception des terroirs du vignoble des Coteaux du Layon

On peut être surpris de l’existence d’un vignoble de vins liquoreux, le vignoble des Coteaux du Layon, dans une zone septentrionale à la limite Nord de la culture de qualité de la vigne et ce d’autant plus que le cépage de ce vignoble, le Chenin ou Pineau de la Loire, est un cépage semi tardif. La première explication est à rechercher au niveau des facteurs naturels (données climatiques et géopédologiques) permettant la réalisation de ce type de produit. Il est nécessaire de souligner ici l’importance de chaque paramètre du terroir pris dans im sens large (géopédologique et climatique) et que toute variation de l’un d’entre eux, même non perceptible en première analyse à l’homme, peut avoir des incidences déterminantes sur la qualité des vins.

La certificazione ambientale del territorio: fattibilita’ e prospettive

In the next years the territorial environmental certification could become realistic if the following conditions will be fully satisfied:
– the enhancement of the environmental awareness among the industries, the public administration, the authorization bodies, the living people of that territory as well as the tourists and visitors.