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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Protection juridique du terroir viticole en France

Protection juridique du terroir viticole en France


La diversité des sources potentielles d’atteintes au terroir d’une appellation (atteintes physiques, esthétiques, écologiques, atteintes à l’image, à la représentation collective voire, dans une conception large qui ne sera pas retenue ici, au nom géographique identifiant le terroir) s’accompagne d’un éclatement des sources juridiques permettant sa protection. Cette hétérogénéité des sources est sans doute en partie liée à une évolution dans l’appréhension de la notion même de terroir. L’objet de la protection évolue : c’est aujourd’hui tout autant le terroir en tant qu’élément du patrimoine d’exploitation viticole qui est protégé que le terroir en tant qu’élément d’un patrimoine collectif national. Quelques soient ses sources (loi d’orientation ou de modernisation agricole, code de l’urbanisme, code de l’expropriation, réglementation des installations classées pour la protection de l’environnement, loi spécifique aux appellations d’origine contrôlées) la protection juridique des terroirs repose toujours sur la mise en oeuvre de procédés de consultation / concertation. L’avis du ministre de l’Agriculture ou, dans certaines hypothèses, directement de l’INAO doit être sollicité préalablement à un certain nombre d’opérations susceptibles d’affecter des terroirs d’appellation. Si l’autorité administrative concemée n’est pas tenue de suivre l’avis émis, elle est tenue de le solliciter sous peine de voir sa décision entachée d’un vice de procédure.

Par ailleurs, la loi n° 90-558 du 2 juillet 1990 relative aux appellations d’origine contrôlées des produits agricoles ou alimentaires bruts ou transformés donne aux syndicats de défense la possibilité de générer l’intervention d’un avis du ministre de l’Agriculture en toute situation susceptible de porter atteinte au terroir de leur appellation. Ces mécanismes de consultation fonctionnent. Plus de 200 avis ont été rendus en 1995 par l’INAO et leur nombre est en constante augmentation.


Publication date: March 25, 2022

Issue: Terroir 1996

Type : Poster



INAO 138, Avenue des Champs-Elysées 75008 Paris


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 1996


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