Wine microbial diversity and cross-over applications: emerging results and future perspectives

AIM: Cross-over applications are an emerging technological approach in food microbiology where a microorganism from one traditional specific fermentation process is used to improve quality and safety in another agri-food production/chain (Dank et al., 2021). A complex microbial diversity is found in association with fermentation in wine, including Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces and malolactic bacteria,  all microorganisms versatile in terms of enological utilisation (Tempère et al., 2018). Here, we propose a systematic literature review highlighting the existing trends and possible future applications related to cross-over exploitation of wine-related microbiota. 

METHODS: Systematic review of the scientific literature, including the evaluation of data from ongoing research projects (‘INVISPUBA’, ‘SPUMAPULIA’ and ‘BE^2R projects, funded by Apulian Region throughout P.S.R. 2014/2020 -Misura 16.2).

RESULTS: For decades, a continuous effort has been carried out worldwide to preserve and exploit the microbial diversity associated with traditional wines and Geographical Indications, including studies on specific autochthonous grape varieties. The oenological significance of an impressive number of eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been assessed, including their effects on dessert, flor and sparkling wines. Often these biological resources are preserved in culture collections, favouring exchanges in food uses (De Vero et al., 2019). The review proposes an overview of the phenotypic characteristics of wine microbes of potential interest for the design of cross-over strategies, with the desired modulation of ‘food qualities’ and safety enhancement. The application of wine strains as a sustainable driver of innovation in other fermented foods (e.g. bread) (Capozzi et al., 2016), alcoholic beverages (e.g. bread and fruity wines) (Agarbati et al., 2020; Canonico et al., 2021; Vilela et al., 2020), and for the development of new fermented products is discussed. 

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed overview of the scientific literature i) underlines a high potential of innovation related to wine ‘microbiodiversity’ and ii) emphasises the importance of culture collections in the light of cross-over applications. The review also underlines the chance to explore innovative regional paths exploiting the exchange of microbial resources from traditional fermented products to other agri-food chains. 

Authors: Vittorio Capozzi – Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR) – Foggia,Nicola DE SIMONE, Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Science, Engineering, University of Foggia. Mariagiovanna, FRAGASSO, Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Science, Engineering, University of Foggia. Giancarlo, PERRONE, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR) – Bari. Franco, BIASIOLI, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach. Giuseppe, SPANO, Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Science, Engineering, University of Foggia. Pasquale RUSSO, Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Science, Engineering, University of Foggia. Maria TUFARIELLO, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR) – Lecce. Francesco, GRIECO, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR) – Lecce

Email: vittorio.capozzi@ispa.cnr.it

Keywords: non-saccharomycessaccharomyces, malolactic bacteria, wine, sparkling wine, microbial terroir, beer, fruity wine, bread, quality, safety

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