Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 The valorization of wine lees as a source of mannoproteins for food and wine applications

The valorization of wine lees as a source of mannoproteins for food and wine applications

Abstract

AIM. Wine yeast lees constitute a winemaking by-product that, unlike grape skins and seeds, are not sufficiently exploited to add value to the winemaking sector, as their treatment and disposal generally represents a cost for wineries [1]. Recently, some valorization strategies proposed the integrated extraction of ethanol, polyphenols, and tartaric acid, while only a few studies investigated ways to exploit the remaining wine lees’ yeast biomass. In particular, no studies attempted the extraction of mannoproteins (MPs), yeast cell wall polysaccharides with known foaming, emulsifying and wine-stabilizing activities [2], from the wine lees’ yeast biomass. To fill this gap, this research aims at developing an efficient and food-grade method for the extraction of yeast MPs from commercial wine lees, and to test the obtained extracts as wine stabilizers, foaming agents, and food emulsifiers.

METHODS. Several protocols were studied to extract MPs from wine lees. Ultimately, commercial wine yeast lees were extracted at pH 3.4 using an autoclave-based treatment (121°C, 20 min). The obtained MPs extracts were characterized by SEC-HPLC, SDS-PAGE or CI-ELLSA [3]. The functionalities of the MPs’ extracts were tested in wine by assessing their foam-promoting ability and their stabilizing potential against protein and tartrate instabilities. Additionally, MPs extracts were tested as emulsifying and foaming agents in model food matrices. The results were compared to those obtained using commercial MPs-based products and/or MPs extracts from pure cultures of the same yeast strains.

RESULTS. Among the extraction protocols tested, the autoclave emerged as the best performing in terms of extract’s effectiveness and, therefore, it was selected for the subsequent extractions. Firstly, MPs obtained from white winemaking lees positively impacted both wine’s foaming properties (+260% height; +360% stability) and tartrate stability (-11%) compared to untreated wine samples. Conversely, the extracts were ineffective in stabilizing wine against protein haze formation [4]. Subsequently, MPs extracts obtained autoclaving red and white wine lees and tested in model food matrices showed encouraging emulsifying activity (≃55% emulsion stability) and foaming properties (stability >3h). In this case, the extract from red wine lees performed better than its analog derived from the same yeast strain grown in the laboratory, thus suggesting a possible impact of wine polyphenols in enhancing the surfactant action of MPs [5].

CONCLUSIONS

The extraction of MPs from wine lees with a simple and food-grade autoclave-based method can represent an effective valorization strategy that, if integrated with the already available techniques to recover ethanol, tartaric acid, and polyphenols, would result in a better exploitation of this by-product with a consequent improvement of the environmental and economic sustainability of the wine industry.

DOI:

Publication date: September 7, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Alberto De Iseppi

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Italy, Andrea CURIONI1,2; Matteo MARANGON1; Giovanna LOMOLINO1; Simone VINCENZI1,2; Benoit DIVOL3

¹ Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Italy
² Centre for Research in Viticulture and Enology (CIRVE), Conegliano, Italy
³ South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Contact the author

Keywords

wine yeast lees, by-product valorisation, mannoproteins, stability, foam, emulsion

Citation

Related articles…

Recent advances in our understanding of the impact of climate change on wine grape production

According to the last IPCC report, the scale of recent climate changes are unprecedented over many centuries. Each of the last four decades has been successively warmer than any decade since 1850. Projections for the future foresee that temperature could reach +3.3°C to +5.7°C under the most pessimistic scenario. It is also projected that every region will face more concurrent and multiple changes in climatic impact-drivers. The frequency of extreme climate events is also likely to increase, as well as the occurrence of indirect constraints. These evolving climatic conditions are alrealdy affecting and will continue to affect the suitability of traditional wine grape production areas, but also create opportunities in new locations.

Early fermentation aroma profiles of grape must produced by various non-Saccharomyces starters

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most commonly used yeast species in winemaking. The recent research showed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts as fermentation starters show numerous beneficial features and can be utilized to reduce wine alcoholic strength, regulate acidity, serve as bioprotectants, and finally improve wine aromatic complexity. The majority of published studies on this topic investigated the influence of sequential or co-inoculations of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeasts on the aroma of final wine.

Accumulation of deleterious mutations in grapevine and its relationship with traits of interest for wine production and resilience

Deleterious mutations that severely reduce population fitness are rapidly removed from the gene pool by purifying selection. However, evolutionary drivers such as genetic drift brought about by demographic bottlenecks may comprise its efficacy by allowing deleterious mutations to accumulate, thereby limiting the adaptive potential of populations. Moreover, positive selection can hitchhike mildly deleterious mutations due to linkage caused by lack of recombination. Similarly, in the context of species domestication, artificial selection mimics these evolutionary processes, which can have undesirable consequences for production and resilience. In this study, we evaluated the extent of the accumulation of deleterious mutations and the magnitude of their effects (also known as genetic load) at the whole-genome scale for ca.

Sensory and chemical profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines exposed to different irrigation regimes during heatwaves

Heatwaves, defined as three or more consecutive days above average historical maximum temperatures, are having a significant impact on agricultural crop yields and quality, especially in arid or semi-arid regions with reduced water availability during the growing season.

Impact of geographical location on the phenolic profile of minority varieties grown in Spain. II: red grapevines

Because terroir and cultivar are drivers of wine quality, is essential to investigate theirs effects on polyphenolic profile before promoting the implantation of a red minority variety in a specific area. This work, included in MINORVIN project, focuses in the polyphenolic profile of 7 red grapevines minority varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (Morate, Sanguina, Santafe, Terriza Tinta Jeromo Tortozona Tinta) and Tempranillo) from six typical viticulture Spanish areas: Aragón (A1), Cataluña (A2), Castilla la Mancha (A3), Castilla –León (A4), Madrid (A5) and Navarra (A6) of 2020 season. Polyphenolic substances were extracted from grapes. 35 compounds were identified and quantified (mg subtance/kg fresh berry) by HPLC and grouped in anthocyanins (ANT) flavanols (FLAVA), flavonols (FLAVO), hydroxycinnamic (AH), benzoic (BA) acids and stilbenes (ST). Antioxidant activity (AA, mmol TE /g fresh berry) was determined by DPPH method. The results were submitted to a two-way ANOVA to investigate the influence of variety, area and their interaction for each polyphenolic family and cluster analysis was used to construct hierarchical dendrograms, searching the natural groupings among the samples. Sanguina (A3) had the most of total polyphenols while Tempranillo (A5) those of ANT. Sanguina (A2) and (A3) reached the highest values of FLAVO, FLAVA and AA. These two last samples had also the maximum of AA. The effect cultivar and area were significant for all polyphenolic families analyzed. A high variability due to variety (>50%) was observed in FLAVA and the maximum value of variability due to growing area was detected in AA (86.41%), ANT and FLAVO (51%); the interaction variety*zone was significant only for ANT, FLAVO, EST and AA. Finally, dendrograms presented five cluster: i) Sanguina (A2); ii) Sanguina (A3); iii) Tempranillo (A5); iv) Tempranillo (A3); Terriza (A3,A5), Morate (A5,A6); v) Santafé (A1,A6); Tortozona tinta (A1,A3,A6); Tinta Jeromo (A3,A4).