Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Shades of shading: chemical and sensory evaluation of riesling grown under various shading techniques

Shades of shading: chemical and sensory evaluation of riesling grown under various shading techniques


AIM: Sun exposure is needed for balanced grape ripening and sugar accumulation but is also one of the main drivers for a premature Riesling ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of both intensity and quality of light in the vineyard on key Riesling grape and wine parameters as an adaptation strategy to changing climate. Of particular interest was the kerosene aroma caused by the C13‑norisoprenoid TDN and other compounds associated with light-induced grape compositional changes.

METHODS: Over two vintages shade cloth of three different colours was applied to Riesling vines at bunch zone in South Australia. Light measurements and incident light wavelength assessments were performed during grape ripening, and subsequent grapes and wine were analysed for key bound and free aroma compounds. After 1-year of storage, wines were analysed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis to quantify the holistic changes of light modulation to the sensory profile.

RESULTS: Depending on colour, shade cloth was successful in modulating either the quantity and/or wavelength of light, as well as showed different response of sugar accumulation. Shading reduced TDN concentrations and kerosene aroma in wines, with very little effect on other sensory descriptors. Interestingly, while presumed C13-norisoprenoid precursor profiles were altered between shading treatments, no significant differences were observed in resulting TDN levels. 


This study highlights the importance of light intensity over examined light wavelength in the vineyard to manipulate TDN. Additionally, light conditions differently affected maturity with possible implications for harvest timing and climate-induced vintage compression.


Publication date: September 13, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


Yevgeniya Grebneva

The Australian Wine Research Institute & the Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Hochschule Geisenheim University,Markus, HERDERICH, The Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide 5064, Australia  Doris, RAUHUT, Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Hochschule Geisenheim University  Eleanor, BILOGREVIC, The Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide 5064, Australia   Josh, HIXSON, The Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide 5064, Australia

Contact the author


riesling, norisoprenoid, tdn, shade cloth


Related articles…

The impact of branched chain and aromatic amino acids on fermentation kinetics and aroma biosynthesis by wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

One of the major determinants of wine quality is the aroma. Wine aroma is the human perception of the matrix of grape and yeast derived volatiles and their interaction that contribute to flavour wine. Most common are higher alcohols, ester and aldehydes. In previous studies the formation of characteristic volatile compounds have been linked to the metabolism of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids
(BCAAs) in synthetic grape must. Here we report on an investigation to assess the impact of the initial amino acid concentration on the production of aroma compounds by the industrial yeast VIN13 grown in both synthetic and real grape musts.

2018 updates on the agronomic performances of fungus resistant wine grapes in Trentino (Italy)

On the market there are several wine grapes which are tolerant to the main fungal diseases. These varieties, commonly defined “resistant”, were developed in the grapevine breeding programs carried out mainly in Germany, France, Hungary and Italy. Some of these cultivars have been included in the national catalogues of wine grape varieties and have sometimes been allowed for specific kinds of wine. The VEVIR project, aimed at the enological evaluation of resistant vines, involves 33 cultivars achieved at the State Institute for Viticulture Freiburg in Germany, the Research Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pecs in Hungary and the Fondazione Edmund Mach S. Michele all’Adige (FEM) in Italy.

Discrimination of white wines by Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods

France is the largest exporter of wine in the world. The export turnover is estimated at 8.7 billion euros in 2017 for 13 million hectoliters sold. This lucrative business pushes scammers to increase the value of some low-end wines by cheating on their appellations, quality or even their origins. These facts lead to losing 1.3 billion euros each year to the European Union’s wine and spirits companies.


A consequence of climate change is the modification of grape harvest quality and physico-chemical parameters of the obtained wine: increase in alcoholic degree, decrease in pH, and modification of the extractability of macromolecules, which leads to problems of microbiological, tartaric, colour and colloidal stability. In order to respond to these problems, the winemaking processes must be anticipated and adapted with a better knowledge of macromolecule extractability in grapes and their evolution, according to the grape variety, vintage and winemaking process. The purpose of this study was to understand 1) how the harvest date can influence the extractability of macromolecules, polysaccharides and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for wine stability 2) how to adapt the winemaking process to the harvest date in order to optimise wine quality.

Considerations about the concept of “terroir”: definition and research direction

On exposera la distinction et la relation entre: “Etude des milieux”, “Zonage Petit ou Zonage Technique ou Sub Zonage”, “Grand Zonage”, “Délimitation des zones productives” ex.