Experimental vinification of withered grapes of Vitis vinifera “Muscat of Alexandria”

Abstract

AIM – The objective of the present work is to investigate wine produced from dehydrated grapes and vinified according to classical Roman manuals.

METHODS: Locally produced Muscat of Alexandria’s grapes were used for the sweet wine production, grown in the experimental vineyard of Instituto Superior de Agronomia (Lisbon, Portugal). The grapes were harvested manually slightly over-ripe and subjected to greenhouse drying. After 7-10 days dried grapes were transported to an experimental winery for various operations (e.g., grape weighing, sorting, crushing/destemming). Several maceration protocols were used comprising the addition of saltwater and white wine to whole bunches or destemmed grapes. Fermentation was conducted with the addition of commercial yeast. The standard physico-chemical parameters of wines were determined according to the OIV standards.

RESULTS: The results showed that all the samples had higher alcoholic content and residual sugar, ranging between 14.7 and 17 (% v/v), and 0.8 g/l to 18 g/l, respectively. Volatile acidity was less than 1 g/l in all wines, except in that obtained from withered grapes alone, probably due to stuck fermentations. In some of the wines, after fermentation, mousiness was clearly perceived.

CONCLUSIONS:

The obtained wines showed that it is possible to obtain acceptable products closely following the relevant protocols described in classical Roman manuals. The main problem was the detection of the mousy off-flavour that can be associated with the absence of sulphur dioxide addition to the musts before fermentation.

DOI:

Publication date: September 16, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

Linking Landscape Environment Agriculture and Food (LEAF) Research Center, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal, Mkrtich Harutyunyan – Linking Landscape Environment Agriculture and Food (LEAF) Research Center, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal, Joana Granja-Soares – Enology Laboratory (DCEB), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal

Contact the author

Keywords

sweet wines; dehydrated grapes; historical wines; muscat of alexandria

Citation

Related articles…

Amyndeon‐naoussa: the two faces of Xinomavro

Xinomavro is the most important indigenous red wine variety grown in Northern Greece. It participates in the production of several PGI wines in Macedonia while from 100% Xinomavro the PDO “Amyndeon” and “Naoussa” are produced. The viticultural area of Amyndeon lies in a plateau of 550 ‐700 m of altitude, in a semi‐continental climate with mostly deep sandy loamy soils derived from limestone and marl bedrocks while in Naoussa, Xinomavro is grown in a Mediterranean climate on more heavy textured soils, sandy clay loam to clay, derived from ophiolithic, limestone and marl bedrocks, in an altitude which varies from 150 to 400 m. Different soil, climate and viticultural technique interactions, result in great variability with respect to morphological, ampelographical and physiological characters of Xinomavro as well as in the characteristics of the wines produced. 

Possible Reduction Method Of Volatile Acid Content And Polyphenols Of Tokaj Aszú Wines With The Aid Of Citosan Bactericid Wine-Treatments

The historical Tokaj region in northeast Hungary is a UNESCO World Heritage region since 2002 owning 5.500 ha vineyards. Produced from „noble rot” grapes, Tokaji Aszú is known as one of the oldest botrytized wines all over the world. Special microclimatic conditions (due to Bodrog and Tisza rivers, Indian summer), soil circumstances (clay, loess on volcanic bedrock) and grape-varieties (Furmint, Hárslevelű) of Tokaj-region offer favourable parameters to the formation of noble rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. The special metabolic activity of Botrytis results in noble rot grapes called “aszú” berries. The grapes undergo complex chemical modifications as the joint result of the enzymatic activity of Botrytis and the physical process of concentration.

Effects of hormone- and natural-based elicitors at the transcriptomic level in berries of cv. Tempranillo

One of the most important effects of climate change in wine-growing areas is the advance of phenological stages, especially concerning early berry ripening. In the hottest seasons, this results in a lack of synchrony between sugar and phenolic ripeness. In order to cope with this fact, a general effort is being made by researchers and growers aiming at delaying ripening through different strategies. One of the proposed approaches is the application of elicitors. This study aims to assess the effect at the transcriptomic level of the application of three hormone- and natural-based elicitors in Tempranillo.

Influence of processing parameters on aroma profile of conventional and ecological Cabernet-Sauvignon red wine during concentration by reverse osmosis

Wine aroma represents one of the most important quality parameter and it is influenced by various factors (viticulture and vinification techniques, climate or storage conditions etc.). Wines produced from conventionally and ecologically grown grapes of same variety have different chemical composition and aroma profile [1]. Aroma profile of wine can be also influenced by additional treatment of wine, such as concentration of wine by reverse osmosis (RO). Reverse osmosis represents a pressure-driven membrane separation technique that separates the initial wine on the retentate or concentrate that is retained on the membrane, and permeate that passes through it [2]. Wine permeate usually containes water, ethanol, acetic acid and several low molecular weight compounds that can pass through the membrane. This property enables the use of reverse osmosis membranes for wine concentration, partial dealcoholization, acetic acid or aroma correction [3,4].

Herbicide-free systems based on under-the-row grass cover in French vineyards

In a context of reducing herbicide use, the most part of French vineyards are developing permanent grass cover crops on inter-rows alleys, while under the row chemical weeding remains the general case. The setting up of a controlled grass cover crop under the vine row could be a complementary alternative to mechanical weeding – which one is very restrictive – interesting from a technical and economical point of view. The present study aimed at assessing agronomic impacts of grass cover crop under the row in different climatic conditions and production objectives.