Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Characterizing chemical influences of smoke on wine via novel application of 13c-labelled smoke

Characterizing chemical influences of smoke on wine via novel application of 13c-labelled smoke


Smoke impact is an ongoing and growing issue for vintners across the globe, with the west coast of the U.S. and Australia being two of the largest wine industries impacted. Wine has shown to be especially sensitive to smoke exposure, often acquiring off-flavor sensory characteristics, such as “burnt rubber”, “ashy”, or other medicinal off-flavors.1 While several studies have examined the chemical composition of smoke influences on wine, some studies disagree on what compounds are having the largest impact on smell and flavor.2 This study is designed as a bottom-up approach to inventory the chemical compounds derived from smoke from a grassland-like fire that are potentially influencing wine chemical composition. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was chosen as a fuel source for its relatively fast growth and high lignin content, a biochemical pre-cursor compound responsible for many smoke sensory attributes. Barley was grown from seed in soil media for 4-6 weeks or until achieving GS 43-44 on the Zadoks’ scale of cereal growth in ambient greenhouse conditions in Corvallis, OR. At the GS 43-44 stages in the plant life cycle, barley growth accelerates, wherein the barley was placed in a sealed translucent container.3 Ambient 12CO2 was purged to


Publication date: September 24, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


D. Cole Cerrato, Lindsay Garcia, Michael Penner, Elizabeth Tomasino,

Ph.D. – Oregon State University

Contact the author


smoke, 13c-label, 13co2, barley, pinot noir, chardonnay


Related articles…

Cumulative effects of repeated drought stress on berry composition, and phenolic profile: Field experiment insights

Drought stress has a profound impact on grapevine productivity and significantly alters key quality-related traits of berries. Although research has been conducted on the effects of individual drought events, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the cumulative consequences of repeated exposure to water scarcity and the influence of the timing of stress imposition. To address this gap, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of repeated drought stress on yield, berry composition, and the phenolic profile of grape berries. The results indicate that yield is primarily influenced by pre-veraison water deficit. Although the number of clusters was only slightly reduced, a substantial decrease in berry size was observed, resulting in a notable reduction in overall yield.

INTEGRAPE guidelines and tools: an effort of COST Action CA17111

INTEGRAPE was a European interdisciplinary network for “data integration to maximize the power of omics for grapevine improvement” (CA17111,, funded by the European COST Association from September 2018 to 2022. This Action successfully developed guidelines and tools for data management and promoted the best practices in grapevine omics studies with a holistic future vision of: “Imagine having all data on grapevine accessible in a single place”.

Climate change impacts on Douro Region viticulture and adaptation measures

Climate has a significant impact in the success of any agricultural system, with a direct influence on the crops suitability to a given region, interfering on yield and quality and also with the economic sustainability of the productive activity. In the Douro Demarcated Region (RDD), as in most regions of the Mediterranean climate, the scarce precipitation (33% has less than 600 mm per year), and your high variability, associated with high rates of evapotranspiration during the summer, is usually one of the fundamental factors that limit the grapevine development, as well as the production and quality of the harvest. Thus, facing the scenario in temperature changes for the next decades (1.5-2.5°C) and confirming the predictions of precipitation decreases and/or great variability in the occurrence of heat waves and intense rainfall, the consequences for slope stability in mountain viticulture and sustainability of all operations involved, are risks to be taken into account. In this way, a deepest and sustained knowledge regarding the adaptation measures to adverse environmental conditions is of a crucial importance, enabling a more efficient adaptation of plant growth conditions and the optimization of production and quality of the grapevines. The development of this work, carried out in two commercial vineyards, one located in Soutelo do Douro, São João da Pesqueira, Cima Corgo sub-region, and another located in Numão, Vila Nova de Foz Côa, Douro Superior sub-region, it seeks to establish a relationship between climatic elements and physiological, productive and qualitative parameters, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation measures, including different types of deficit irrigation (2002-2019) and the application of shading nets (2019-2020) in the physiological, viticultural and oenological behavior in the Touriga Nacional and Moscatel Galego Branco varieties, respectively. The results showed that the application of deficit irrigation allowed to significantly reduce the impact of the adverse weather conditions at key moments in the development of the grapevine, particularly in the period immediately before veráison and maturation, reducing the negative effects on the physiological processes and productivity, without compromise the must quality parameters. On the other hand, the application of shading nets significantly reduced de leaves temperature, allowing to increase the water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of grapes, which was reflected in the yield increase in the 2nd year of the study. For the maturation indicators, higher levels of total acidity, malic acid and assimilable nitrogen were obtained. The last measure presents a huge potential, being essential to carry out more years of trials to obtain stronger conclusions in terms of production parameters, but also in characteristics as important as the grape ripening components and the organoleptic characteristics of wines.

Effects of the addition of biochar on the chemical parameters of a vineyard soil in South Tirol, Italy

[lwp_divi_breadcrumbs home_text="IVES" use_before_icon="on" before_icon="||divi||400" module_id="publication-ariane" _builder_version="4.20.4" _module_preset="default" module_text_align="center" module_font_size="16px" text_orientation="center"...

Water availability at budbreak time in vineyards that are deficitary irrigated during the summer: Effect on must volatile composition

In recent years, Mediterranean regions are being affected by marked climate changes, primarily characterized by reduced precipitation, greater concurrence of temperature extremes and drought during the growing season, and increased inter-annual variability in temperatures and rainfall. Generally, high-quality red wines need moderate water deficit. Hence, irrigation may be needed to avoid severe vine water stress occurring in some vintages and soils with low holding capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil recharge irrigation in pre-sprouting and summer irrigation every week (30 % ETO) from the pea size state until the end of ripening (RP) compared to exclusively summer irrigation every week (R) in the same way that RP, on must volatile composition at harvest.