Influenza dell’esposizione del vigneto sulla maturazione dell’uva

Abstract

[English version below]

Lo studio è stato condotto in vigneti commerciali di Vitis vinifera cv Nebbiolo localizzati in Piemonte, Italia del Nord-Ovest, intorno alla sommità di una collina. L’obiettivo dello studio è stato di determinare come l’esposizione del vigneto possa influenzare il comportamento vegetativo della vite, il manifestarsi delle fasi fenologiche, e la cinetica di maturazione dell’uva con particolare riguardo all’accumulo di antociani e flavonoli. Le esposizioni più meridionali hanno indotto precocità di germogliamento e fioritura ma diminuzione della fertilità per gemma e, di conseguenza, della resa per pianta influenzando anche il peso dei grappoli, degli acini e delle bucce; hanno promosso una maggiore concentrazione dei solidi solubili nelle ultime fasi di maturazione ma la sintesi degli antociani e dei flavonoli ha subito un rallentamento durante le fasi tardive di maturazione. L’esposizione occidentale ha favorito il ritardo delle fasi fenologiche e un aumento della fertilità per gemma, del peso del grappolo e della resa produttiva, determinando un minore accumulo di solidi solubili nel mosto ma una maggiore sintesi di antociani. Si è evidenziata, in oltre, una probabile influenza della temperatura non solo sulla sintesi degli antociani ma anche dei flavonoli delle bucce.

The study was conducted in Sinio (Piedmont, Northwest Italy) in commercial vineyards of Vitis vinifera cv. Nebbiolo, situated on the top of a 30 % slope hillside, thus they were differently exposed: two of these (A) was exposed to South, another (B) to East-South-East, the fourth (C) to West-North-West. The clone CVT 141 grafted onto 420 A, was cultivated in every vineyard. Vines were VSP trained and pruned to the Guyot system (10 bud cane plus 2 bud spur). Vine theoretical density was 5200 vine/ha. The aim of this study was to determine how the vineyard exposition influences vine vegetative behaviour, phenological phase timing, grape ripening kinetic and grape properties including colour and flavonols. The results were used to characterize the vineyards in a sort of farm zoning, helping to choose the best technical management.
The 2009 vintage was characterized by a very rainy winter and spring, and a very hot summer (from mid July until the beginning of September the maximum temperature, as average, exceeded 32 °C). Bud burst and flowering resulted delayed in C, respect to A and B vineyards, whereas bud fertility was higher in C. That fact induced a higher bunch weight (313 g) in vineyard facing West (C), respect to those Southward (A and D) where bunch weight was similar (224 g) also thanks to a higher berry mass (1.87 g in A and D, 2.09 g in B, and 2.07 g in C). Furthermore, vineyard exposition influenced the vine vigour and yield that in C and D were twice that in A and B vineyards. Soluble solid content at harvest appeared higher in A, B and D (24.3 Brix as average) than in C vineyard (23.7 Brix). Southern expositions (A and D) delayed the beginning of veraison and reduced the anthocyanin concentration at harvest (600 mg/kg) respect to B (670 mg/kg) and C (770 mg/k); further differences among vineyards were observed both in the pattern of flavonol accumulation and in their concentration at harvest. In synthesis the Southern expositions advanced the phenological phases and decreased bud fertility, yield per vine and weight of bunches, berries and berry skins. In addition, it promoted a high concentration of soluble solids at harvest but not of anthocyanins whose concentration slowed down during the late phases of ripening. Western exposition (C) promoted a delay of phenological phases, and an increase of bud fertility, bunch weight and yield per vine; it induced a medium accumulation of soluble solids but the highest synthesis of anthocyanins. Due to the global warming we can expect a high variability between vintages from a weather point of view. We think that a sort of farm zoning matched with data obtained from observations executed in successive vintages could be a useful help to choose the best technical management for a specific year and to foresee in advance the vintage results.

DOI:

Publication date: December 3, 2021

Issue: Terroir 2010

Type: Article

Authors

Guidoni S., Gangemi L., Ferrandino A.

Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Università di Torino, Via L. Da Vinci, 44. 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

Nebbiolo, fasi fenologiche, produttività, antociani, flavonoli
Nebbiolo, phenological phases, yield, anthocyanins, flavonols

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2010

Citation

Related articles…

Geopedological and climatic zoning of northern Malaga vineyards region: Fuente de Piedra, Humilladero and Mollina (southern Spain)

The vineyards placed in the municipal areas of Fuente de Piedra, Humilladero and Mollina constitute a wine-growing important area of the “Zona Norte” of the province of Málaga.

WHAT’S FUTURE FOR SANTORINI’S VITICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The own-rooted vineyard of Santorini is a unique case of vineyard worldwide that is been cultivated for thousands of years. On the island’s volcanic soil, the vines are still cultivated with traditional techniques, which are adapted to the specific and extreme weather conditions that prevail on it. While climate change is a reality in the Mediterranean region, will Santorini vineyard endure its impact? The study of the traditional training systems, techniques and vine density, as well as the application of sustainable solutions (cover crops and use of kaolin etc.) revealed sustainable methods for the adaptation of the local viticulture to new climatic phenomena that tend to be more and more frequent in the region due to climate change.

Risposte enologiche del Nero d’Avola su suoli a diverso grado di salinità

Vengono riportati i risultati enologici di uno studio condotto sul Nero d’Avola in un tipico ambiente viticolo siciliano, in cui insistono suoli che presentano un diverso grado di salinità.

ePROSECCO: Historical, cultural, applied philosophy analysis and process, product and certification innovation, for the “sustainable original progress and promotion 4.1c” of a historic and famous territory and wine

According to the algorithm “A step back towards the future 4.1C”, (Cargnello,1986a, 1987d, 1988a.b, 1991, 1993, 1994b, 1995, 1999a.e, 2000b, 2007c, 2008a, 2009d, 2013; and according to the principles of “Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC” of GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, 2003 2015, 2017), the historical, applied philosophy and productive analysis connected to the innovations and to the “Certification of the Universal Holistic MetaEthical Sustainability 4.1C” “indexed new global production model 4.1C” has always been fundamental, especially for the “Prosecco Territory” and for the “Prosecco Wine” to design and implement their synergistic future “Sustainable and Certificable 4.1CC” according to the principles of the “Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC” by the GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, lc, Cargnello et Carbonneau, 2007, 2018), and of the Conegliano Campus 5.1C. (Cargnello, lc). Nowadays, people think that Prosecco is a wine from the Veneto Region (from Conegliano and Valdobbiadene in particular), while it comes from Friuli‐Venezia Giulia Region (in North Eastern Italy, such as Veneto) more precisely from “Prosecco” in the Municipality of Trieste (TS‐Italy), as documented in 1382 and in 1548, when Pier Andrea Mattioli, described “that ancient wine, which is born in Prosecco”, as a wine with the following characteristics “thin, clear, shiny, golden, odorous and pleasant to taste». In 1888 at the “Wine Fair” of Trieste there were the “Sparkling wine Prosecco” by Giovanni Balanc, by Giuseppe Klampferer and that one by Marino Luxa. In the 19th century, many expressed their appreciation for the “Prosecco” of Trieste. In order to implement intra and extra territorial and cross‐border relations, as well as, the “Certification of: Products, Companies, Territory, Bio‐MétaÉthique District 4.1C” of Prosecco, a series of activities and researches were conducted in 8 companies: 5 in the “Territory of Prosecco” (TS) in which the principles of “Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC” of GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, lc) have been successfully applied. In particolar: 1‐ new and original “Sustainable 4.1C global production model” developed also to prevent the problems caused by wild boar, roe deer, and birds while safeguarding their “psychophysical wellness”, as well as the “psychophysical wellness 4.1C” of the macro and micro flora and fauna, of the biodiversity, of the landscape, etc. (Cargnello, lc), 1.2‐ chemical weed control and “Non MetaEthics 4.1C” processing with the total grass growing of the ground without or with mowing, better if it is manual to protect grass, air and soil, 2‐ recovery of “Historic”: land, vineyards, vines, biodiversity, landscapes, productions, products, … , 3‐ production of the famous “Prosekar, also rosé, of Prosecco” and “Prosecco di Prosecco”, according to “A step back towards the future 4.1C” 4‐ to offer a deserved psychophysical well‐being to the “Prosecco Territory” and entrepreneurs. 

VineyardFACE: Investigation of a moderate (+20%) increase of ambient CO2 level on berry ripening dynamics and fruit composition

Climate change and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a concern for agriculture, including viticulture. Studies on elevated carbon dioxide have already been on grapevines, mainly taking place in greenhouses using potted plants or using field grown vines under higher CO2 enrichment, i.e. >650 ppm. The VineyardFACE, located at Hochschule Geisenheim University, is an open field Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experimental set-up designed to study the effects of elevated carbon dioxide using field grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon). As the carbon dioxide fumigation started in 2014, the long term effects of elevated carbon dioxide treatment can be investigated on berry ripening parameters and fruit metabolic composition.
The present study aims to investigate the effect on fruit composition under a moderate increase (+20%; eCO2) of carbon dioxide concentration, as predicted for 2050 on both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon. Berry composition was determined for primary (sugars, organic acids, amino acids) and secondary metabolites (anthocyanins). Special focus was given on monitoring of berry diameter and ripening rates throughout three growing seasons. Compared to previous results of the early adaptative phase of the vines [1], our results show little effect of eCO2 treatment on primary metabolites composition in berries. However, total anthocyanins concentration in berry skin was lower for eCO2 treatment in 2020, although the ratio between anthocyanins derivatives did not differ.
[1] Wohlfahrt Y., Tittmann S., Schmidt D., Rauhut D., Honermeier B., Stoll M. (2020) The effect of elevated CO2 on berry development and bunch structure of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon. Applied Science Basel 10: 2486