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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Terroir Conferences 9 Terroir 2010 9 Geology and Soil: effects on wine quality (T2010) 9 Typicité et terroir : importance relative du type de sol et du niveau de maturité dans la typologie sensorielle du vin

Typicité et terroir : importance relative du type de sol et du niveau de maturité dans la typologie sensorielle du vin

Abstract

[English version below]

Le lien fonctionnel entre typicité et terroir a été étudié en prenant en compte deux dimensions importantes : le type de sol et la date de vendanges. Ces deux facteurs sont, à des degrés divers, considérés comme facteurs explicatifs de l’effet terroir. Trois parcelles de Cabernet franc, sur trois types de sols différents et revendiquant des AOP variées (“Anjou Villages”, “Anjou Rouge” et “Saumur Champigny”) ont été vinifiées, en triplicata, à deux dates espacées de 14 jours. Les vins, vinifiés selon un protocole standardisé, ont été analysés sensoriellement par un jury de professionnels (question de typicité : Anjou Rouge vs Anjou Villages) et par un jury expert (profil conventionnel). Pour évaluer la notion de maturité phénolique (teneur et aptitude à l’extraction), les composés phénoliques ont été analysés à la vendange, au décuvage, mais également au moment de l’analyse sensorielle.
Les résultats montrent que si le type de sol a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels des vins, son effet sur la typicité a été faible. La date de vendanges, au contraire, a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels mais également les notes de typicité. Concernant les composés phénoliques, si la teneur et la composition en anthocyanes était dépendante de la date de vendanges, elle n’a pas été explicative de la typicité, sauf quand les anthocyanes totales ont été mesurées lors de l’analyse sensorielle (effet couleur). La quantité de tanins condensés n’est pas apparue dépendante des parcelles mais de la date de vendanges. La qualité des tanins contenus dans le vin au décuvage s’est révélée différente selon la date de vendanges et explicative de la typicité. Enfin, la couleur des vins, liée à leur composition en composés phénoliques, a influencé la perception de la typicité.
Cette étude illustre l’importance de certaines pratiques dans l’effet terroir, le type de sol ayant un effet direct beaucoup moins important que ne laissent supposer les résultats d’enquêtes auprès des producteurs.

Harvest date is a critical point to the winemaker, in order to produce wine with a distinctive style. In particular the relation between ripening stage and extractability of flavonoids must be highlighted.
The extractability of flavonoids (flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins) from grapes was monitored at two stages of maturity (veraison + 30 days, veraison + 44 days). Berries were obtained from three plots with different types of soil in term of water status, from 3 AOC (Anjou-Villages-Brissac, Anjou and Saumur Champigny) and were elaborated in triplicate. Flavonoids were analysed before and after winemaking, by RP-LC-DAD, after fractionation and thiolysis for the proanthocyanidins. Sensory analysis was performed eight month after harvest, by a sensory expert panel (Quantitative descriptive analysis) and by wine experts, (assessment of the typicality). Wine experts were producers, winemakers, and oenologists from the area.
The results showed that the type of soil allowed to discriminate the wines according to some sensory attributes, but its effect on the typicality was weak. On the contrary, the date of grape harvest, allowed discriminating the wine according to their sensory profiles and also to their typicality scores. Concerning the flavonoids, if the content and the composition in anthocyanins were dependent on the date of grape harvest, it was not connected to the typicality, except when anthocyanins were analyzed just before sensory analysis. The quantity of condensed tannins was not dependent on plots but on harvest date. The quality of tannins contained in the wine at devatting was different according to hatvest date. Moreover, quantity and quality of condensed tanins were highly correlated to the typicality scores. Finally, if the anthocyanin contents of wines were correlated with typicality, the composition in the final wine were not predicted by composition at devatting. The influence of anthocyanins seemed to be due to perception of the color of wines in the typicality judgment.
This study illustrated the importance of harvest and vatting practices in the terroir effect, with a soil effect less important as often admitted.

DOI:

Publication date: December 3, 2021

Issue: Terroir 2010

Type: Article

Authors

Champenois Réjane (1), Cadot Yves (1), Caille Soline (2), Samson Alain (3), Cheynier Véronique (2)

(1) INRA, UE 1117, UMT Vinitera, F-49070 Beaucouzé, France
(2) INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l’OEnologie, F-34060 Montpellier, France
(3) INRA, UE999 Pech-Rouge, F-11430 Gruissan, France

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Keywords

Terroir, Typicité, Tanins condensés, Anthocyanes, Cabernet franc, Vitis vinifera
Terroir, Typicality, Condensed tanins, Anthocyanins, Cabernet franc, Vitis vinifera

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2010

Citation

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