Fermentations management: tools for the preservation of the wine specificity

Development of the indigenous microflora is not insignificant on the wine quality. S. cerevisiae indigenous strains are low tolerant to ethanol. They can lead to sluggish fermentations. B. bruxellensis produce volatile phenols affecting fruity and freshness wines characters. Some indigenous O. oeni strains can be responsible for the presence of biogenic amines in wines. To overcome these problems, the use of selected yeast and bacteria strains is the most efficient tool. However, controlling the native flora industrial strains should not reduce the singularity of each wine. 
Selection process should take into account the aromatic profile of the strains in addition to their fermentative capacity. Researchers should provide large pool of strains suitable to be used for different types of wines. These considerations are crucial for white wines where it is essential to encourage the expression of the varietals qualities. In red wines, strain neutrality aromatic is more recommended and the focus should be made on fermentative kinetics and microbial security. 
The objective of our work is to raise question of the specificity and the diversity of the microbial species and strains involved in winemaking. Probably stemming from their isolation origin, strains exhibited several differences which should be used to encourage the preservation of the differences between each type of wines and to respect the ‘terroir’ impact and the originality of each wine. 

Authors:  Vincent RENOUF (1,3), Charlotte Gourraud (1) and Marie-Laure Murat (2)

(1) Laffort, BP 17, 33072 Bordeaux cedex 15, FRANCE 
(2) Laboratoire SARCO, filiale de recherche de la société Laffort, BP 40, 33072 Bordeaux, FRANCE 
(3) ENITA de Bordeaux, 1 cours du général de Gaulle, 33175 Gradignan cedex, FRANCE 

Email: vincent.renouf@laffort.com

Keywords:  microbial diversity, yeast, bacteria, strains, wine typicity, spoilage 

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