Proceedings of Terclim
Discover below the proceedings of the Terclim conferences.
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Grapevine xylem embolism resistance spectrum reveals which varieties have a lower mortality risk in a future dry climate
Wine growing regions have recently faced intense and frequent droughts that have led to substantial economical losses, and the maintenance of grapevine productivity under warmer and drier climate will rely notably on planting drought-resistant cultivars. Given that plant growth and yield depend on water transport efficiency and maintenance of photosynthesis, thus on the preservation of the vascular system integrity during drought, a better understanding of drought-related hydraulic traits that have a significant impact on physiological processes is urgently needed. We have worked towards this end by assessing vulnerability to xylem embolism in 30 grapevine commercial varieties encompassing red and white Vitis vinifera varieties, hybrid varieties characterized by a polygenic resistance for powdery and downy mildew, and commonly used rootstocks. These analyses further allowed a global assessment of wine regions with respect to their varietal diversity and resulting vulnerability to stem embolism. Hybrid cultivars displayed the highest vulnerability to embolism, while rootstocks showed the greatest resistance. Significant variability also arose among Vitis vinifera varieties, with Ψ12 and Ψ50 values ranging from -0.4 to -2.7 MPa and from -1.8 to -3.4 MPa, respectively. Cabernet franc, Chardonnay and Ugni blanc featured among the most vulnerable varieties while Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon ranked among the most resistant. In consequence, wine regions bearing a significant proportion of vulnerable varieties, such as Poitou-Charentes, France and Marlborough, New Zealand, turned out to be at greater risk under drought. These results highlight that grapevine varieties may not respond equally to warmer and drier conditions, outlining the importance to consider hydraulic traits associated with plant drought tolerance into breeding programmes and modeling simulations of grapevine yield maintenance under severe drought. They finally represent a step forward to advise the wine industry about which varieties and regions would have the lowest risk of drought-induced mortality under climate change.
Investigating the impact of grape exposure and UV radiations on rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. Tardif grapes under field trial conditions
Rotundone is the main aroma compound responsible for peppery notes in wines whose biosynthesis is negatively affected by heat and drought. Through the alteration of precipitation regime and the increase in temperature during maturation, climate change is expected to affect wine peppery typicality. In this context there is a demand for developing sustainable viticultural strategies to enhance rotundone accumulation or limit its degradation. It was recently proposed that ultraviolet (UV) radiations could stimulate rotundone production. The aim of this study was to investigate under field trial conditions the impact of grape exposure and UV treatments on rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. Tardif, an almost extinct grape variety from south-west France that can express particularly high rotundone levels. Four different treatments were compared in 2021 to a control treatment using a randomised complete block design with three replications per treatment. Grape exposure was manipulated through early or late defoliation. Leaf and laterals shoots were removed at Eichorn Lorenz growth stages 32 or 34 on the morning-sun side of the canopy. During grape maturation, UV radiations were either reduced by 99% by installing UV radiation-shielding sheets, or applied four times using the Boxilumix™ non thermal device (Asclepios Tech, Tournefeuille) with the aim of activating plant signalling pathway. Loggers displayed in solar radiation shields were used to assess the effect of such shielding sheets on air temperature within the bunch zone. The composition of grapes subjected to these treatments will be soon analysed for their rotundone content and basic classical laboratory analyses. Grapes will be harvested to elaborate wines under standardized small-scale vinification conditions (60kg) that will be assessed by a trained sensory panel.
The Fruška Gora mountain is a traditional wine-growing region in Serbia situated in the Pannonian Basin. Due to such a position, the vicinity of the Danube River and the presence of concave configuration, it is suitable for grape production. This paper provides analyses of spatial variations in meteorological parameters and grape juice quality within Fruška Gora wine region over three consecutive vintages (2018-2020). The examined period can be defined as warm with cool nights during September (AVG 18,9°C; GDD 1918°C; CI 12°CF) and with the presence of mesoclimatic variability. The East part of the study area was somewhat drier and hotter compared to other parts of the region. The analyses of grape must samples (190 in total) of five cultivars (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and Grašac (Welschriesling)) commonly grown across the region (19 sites), were performed using Fourier Transform Infrared Technology (FTIR). Among all cultivars, Sauvignon blanc was harvested first in the East area (DOY=246±5, GDD at harvest=1552±74, 22.2±0.7 °Brix), while the latest harvest was recorded for Cabernet-Sauvignon in the West (DOY=283±5, GDD at harvest=1936±187, 23.4±1.0 °Brix ). Both the red and white cultivars had higher acidity and YAN in the grape must if the vines were grown in the North and East compared to South and West areas. According to PCA analysis, Grašac showed the lowest variation in grape must chemical composition. Thus, the results confirm that Grašac is the most stable cultivar in Fruška Gora. All monitored cultivars reached technological fruit ripeness by the end of the growing season. However, it was difficult to reach full ripeness of red cultivars, mostly beacuse of uncoupling of technolocical and phenolic ripeness. Thus, Cabernet-Sauvignon had higher variations in GDD sums at harvest compared to other cultivars, which probably increased variations in grape must quality.