IMPACT OF HARVEST DATE ON THE FINE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF MUST AND BORDEAUX RED WINE (VAR. MERLOT, CABERNET SAUVIGNON). FOCUS ON ACIDITY AND SENSORY IMPACT AFTER FIVE YEARS OF AGING
Climate change has brought several impacts that are becoming increasingly intense during the last few years and put at risk the quality of the berries or even the plant’s sustainability. Such extreme climatic events impact the composition of the wine while modulating its quality and the consumer preferences (Tempère et al., 2019). The three most important changes that take place in the must are: 1) decrease acidity, 2) increase of the concentration of sugar, hence increase of alcohol in the wine, and 3) modification
of the sensory balance and the development for example of cooked fruit aromas.
In Italy, in the past two decades, the rate of temperature increases (0.0369 °C per year) was slightly higher compared to the world average (0.0313 °C per year). It has also been indicated that the number and intensity of heat waves have increased considerably in the last decades. (IEA, 2022). Viticultural zones can be classified with climatic indexes. Huglin’s index (HI) considers the temperature in a definite area and has been considered as reliable to evaluate the thermal suitability for winegrape production (Zhang et al., 2023).
Besides the increase in global mean temperature the second main challenge of a changing climate is the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in relation to physiology and yield performance of grapevines. The benefits of increasing CO2 levels under greenhouse environment or open field studies have been well investigated for various annual crops. Research under free carbon dioxide enrichment on field-grown perennial plants such as grapevines is limited to a few studies. Further, chamber and greenhouse experiments have been conducted mostly on potted vines under eCO2 conditions.
Microbial ecosystems in wineries – molecular interactions between species and modelling of population dynamics
Microbial ecosystems are primary drivers of viticultural, oenological and other cellar-related processes
such as wastewater treatment. Metagenomic datasets have broadly mapped the vast microbial species
diversity of many of the relevant ecological niches within the broader wine environment, from vineyard
soils to plants and grapes to fermentation. The data highlight that species identities and diversity
significantly impact agronomic performance of vineyards as well as wine quality, but the complexity
of these systems and of microbial growth dynamics has defeated attempts to offer actionable
tools to guide or predict specific outcomes of ecosystem-based interventions.
It is well known that the vinification of grapes at full maturation can produce rich, full-bodied wines,
with intense and complex flavour profiles. However, the juice obtained from such grapes may have very
high sugar concentration, resulting in wines with an excessive concentration of ethanol. In addition, the decoupling between technological maturity and phenolic/aromatic one due to global warming, exacerbates this problem in some wine-growing regions. In parallel with the increase of the mean alcohol content of wines on the market, also the demand for reduced alcohol beverages has increased in recent years, mainly as a result of health and social concerns about the risks related to the consumption of alcohol.
Metabolomics for grape and wine research: exploring the contributions of amino acids to wine flavour
A critical aspect of wine quality is the overall expression of wine flavour, which is formed by the interplay of volatile aroma compounds, their precursors, and taste and matrix components.
Grapes directly contribute to wine only a small number of potent aroma compounds, and the unique
sensory attributes and perceived quality of a wine result from combining 100s of metabolites of grapes, yeast and bacteria, and oak wood.
Wine consumers generally demand wines having a perception of softer tannins and less ripe, having a heaviness and richness on palate (full-body wine) with a limpid and stable color. However, polyphenol
(tannins)-rich wines have been also correlated with unpleasant taste properties such as astringency and
bitterness when perceived at high intensities. Modulating these unpleasant properties could be important for consumer’s approval of wines.
The presentation will approach the understanding of wine consumers´ perception based on the experiential model suggested by Warell (2008). In this framework, wine consumption gives rise to a
variety of experiences related to the perception, understanding, and judgment of the product. These
multidimensional facets of the drinking experience can be explored by measuring affective, cognitive,
and sensory responses of consumers, which are shown to be stable regardless of the social context.
This paper focuses on how taste in wine (and other foods) changes and the implications of this process
for producers and merchants.
It draws primarily on the changing taste of and taste for champagne in Britain in the 19th century. Between 1850 and 1880 champagne went from a dosage level of around 20% (20 grams sugar / litre) to 0%. Champagne became the ‘dinner wine of the elite – drunk with roast meat and savoury dishes.
Contemporaries accepted that while most people could distinguish the taste of good champagne from that of bad, very few could distinguish very good from good.
Grape quality potential for wine production is strongly influenced by environmental parameters such as climate and agronomic factors such as rootstock. Several studies underline the effect of rootstock on vegetative growth of the scions  and on berry composition [2, 3] with an impact on wine quality. Rootstocks are promising agronomic tools for climate change adaptation and in most grape-growing regions the potential diversity of rootstocks is not fully used and only a few genotypes are planted. Little is known about the effect of rootstock genetic variability on the aromatic composition in wines; thus further investigations are needed.
The vocabulary used to describe wine aroma is commonly organized according to color, raising the question of whether they reflect the reality of olfactory perception. Previous studies have assumed this convention of color-aroma matching, and have investigated color’s influence on the perception of aroma only in dyed white wine or in red wine from particular places of origin. Here 48 white and red varietal wines from around the world were evaluated in black glasses then in clear glasses by a panel of wine experts, who gave intensity ratings for aroma attributes commonly used by wine professionals. In black glasses, aromas conventionally associated with white wine were perceived in the red wines, and vice versa.
Bordeaux is the largest appellation vineyard in France. This contrasting vineyard with varied terroirs offers all styles of wine, resulting from the blending of several grape varieties. If these different profiles make the renown of Bordeaux wines, it can appear as a constraint when the aim is to study Bordeaux wines in their diversity. The selection of a representative sample can be performed by a sensory analysis carried out by trained panelists or by wine professionals, which can take several forms: consensus among experts, conventional descriptive analysis, typicality or quality evaluation. However, because of time, economic, and logistical constraints, these methods have limited applications. As an alternative to classical descriptive analysis, more intuitive methods that do not require training have been proposed recently to describe wines using an expert panel such as Napping, Free Choice or Flash Profiling, CATA or RATA.
The definition of the term “quality” in sensory evaluation of food products does not seem to be consensual. Descriptive or liking methods are generally used to differentiate between wines (Lawless et al., 1997). Nevertheless, quality evaluation of a product such as wine can also relate to emotional aspects. As exposed by Costell (2002), product quality is defined as an integrated impression, like acceptability, pleasure, or emotional experiences during tasting. According to the ‘modality appropriateness’ hypothesis which predicts that wine tasters weigh the most suitable sensory inputs for a specific assess- ment (Freides, 1974; Welch & Warren, 1980), the nature of the quality definitions may modulate sensory influences.
CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID RED WINE COLOR IN RELATION TO ANTHOCYANIN PROFILE AND CHEMICAL COLOR PARAMETERS
Interspecific hybrid winegrapes are of growing interest in the context of climate change based on their disease resistance and cold hardiness. In addition to a need for increased understanding of their chemical composition, there is little empirical evidence on the consumer perception of non-vinifera wine. Phenolic compounds, and particularly color, play an important organoleptic and quality determination role in wine, but can vary significantly in interspecific hybrid wines compared to wines produced from Vitis vinifera cultivars [1, 2, 3]. Anecdotally, the variation in anthocyanin species, interactions, and concentrations in interspecific hybrids could result in a variance from“vinifera-like” wine color.
The movement of Natural wines has clearly increased in the last few years, to reach a high demand from consumers nowadays. Switzerland has not been left out of this movement and has created a dedicated association in 2021. This association has the ambition to develop a specific tasting sheet for natural wines. The study of the tasting notes shows that the olfactory description of wines is recent but predominant today. But wine is a product makes to be drunk and not (just) to smell it. Based on these findings, a new 100-point tasting sheet has been developed. The main characteristics are 1) an evaluation in the mouth before the description of the olfaction, 2) to give 50% of the points on the judgment for the mouth characteristics, 3) to pejorate the visual aspects only if the wine is judged as “not drinkable” and 4) to express personal emotions.
PERCEPTUAL INTERACTIONS PHENOMENA INVOLVING VARIOUS VOLATILE COMPOUND FAMILIES LINKED TO SOME FRUITY NOTES IN BORDEAUX RED WINES
Fruity notes play a key role in the consumer’s appreciation of Bordeaux red wines. If literature provides a lot of knowledge about the nature of volatile compounds involved in this fruity expression, the sensory phenomena involving these compounds in mixture still need to be explored. Considering previous sensory works about the impact of esters and some overripening compounds, the goal of this work was to study the implication of perceptual interactions involving red wine odorant compounds of diverse origins and described as potentially affecting fruity aromatic expression.
Port is a fortified wine, produced from grapes grown in the demarcated Douro region. The fortification process consists in the addition of a grape spirit (77% v/v) to the fermenting juice for fermentation interruption, resulting in remaining residual sugars in the wine and increased alcohol content (19-22%). The approval of grape spirits follows the Appellation (D.O. Port wine) rules1 and it is currently carried out based on analytical control and on sensory evaluation done by the public Institute that upholds the control of the quality of Douro Appellation wines. However, the producers of Port wines would like to have more information about quality markers of grape spirits.
ADDITION OF OAK WOOD ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: QUALITATIVE AND SENSORIAL EFFECTS FOR A WHITE WINE OF ALIGOTE
Wines matured in contact with wood are extremely popular with consumers all over the world. Oak wood allows the organoleptic characteristics of wine to be modified. Wines are enriched with volatile and non-volatile compounds extracted from the wood. The aromas extracted from oak wood contribute to the construction of the wine’s aromatic profile and the main polyphenols extracted can modify taste perceptions such as astringency and bitterness. All the compounds extracted from the wood thus contribute to the balance and quality of the wines.
VOLATILE COMPOUNDS AND SENSORY PROFILE OF NEBBIOLO RED WINES TREATED WITH WOOD FORMATS ALTERNATIVE TO BARRELS
In winemaking, the use of wood products alternative to barrels, has become a useful tool for the achievement of numerous oenological objectives, including the fast release of desirable volatile and polyphenolic compounds, colour stabilization, and important economic advantages if compared to the traditional barrel production. Among a huge array of variables, the wood format, the vinification protocol, especially the moment of the infusion of the woods and the exposed surface area of the alternative woods are of relevant significance, since they may influence the speed and intensity of the aroma transfer from the wood to the wine defining different sensory profiles.
TANNINS AND ANTHOCYANINS KINETICS OF EXTRACTION FROM ARINARNOA, MARSELAN AND TANNAT UNDER DIFFERENT WINEMAKING TECHNIQUES
Marselan wines have an unusual high proportion of seed derived tannins from grapes having high proportions of skins, which are rich in tannins. But the causes behind this characteristic have not yet been identified. In vintage 2023 wines were made at experimental scale (9 kg by experimental unit) from Arinarnoa, Marselan and Tannat Vitis vinifera grape cultivars by traditional maceration, and by techniques aimed to increase the wine content in skin derived tannin: addition of extraction enzymes, addition at vatting of grape-skin enological tannins, or by extended maceration, known to increase the seed derived tannin contents of wines.