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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Terroirs and legal protection

Terroirs and legal protection

Abstract

[English version below]

Le concept AOC permet, par une délimitation précise, la mise en valeur de terroirs particulièrement adaptés à la viticulture. Seuls les terroirs ainsi identifiés peuvent produire des vins portant le nom de l’AOC. Le nom de cette AOC ne peut être utilisé que pour des vins issus de terroirs compris dans l’aire d’appellation, sous peine de sanctions pénales. La délimitation ainsi opérée participe à la protection du nom de l’AOC. A l’inverse, le terroir délimité n’est pas protégé.
Pourtant, il est victime d’agressions régulières :
– agressions matérielles : création de routes, autoroutes, lotissement, carrières….qui réduisent l’aire d’appellation;
– agressions intellectuelles : implantations d’usines, de centrales nucléaires, de centre de transit de carcasses d’animaux, de station d’épuration…qui nuisent à l’image de l’appellation et risquent parfois de porter atteinte à la qualité de la production (pollution du vignoble).
Ces menaces sont permanentes et les outils de protection juridique sont insuffisants.

La protection devrait intervenir :
– au moment de l’élaboration des documents d’urbanisme ;
– lors de l’instruction des dossiers concernant les projets menaçants.
Les procédures existant actuellement prévoient :
– un simple rôle consultatif de l’INAO dans certains cas déterminés ;
– la possibilité pour les syndicats de défense des appellations, dès qu’ils estiment qu’une atteinte est possible, d’obliger l’autorité décisionnaire à consulter le Ministre de l’Agriculture avant toute prise de décision. En aucun cas, les décisions ne doivent être conformes aux avis rendus.
Récemment, le législateur a créé la notion de «zone agricole protégée » destinée à limiter les autorisations de construire dans ces zones. Mais, aucune ZAP n’a encore été créée.

Face à ces carences, certains professionnels s’orientent vers une protection via les outils de protection des paysages ou sites exceptionnels : ZPPAUP, inscription au patrimoine de l’UNESCO. La rédaction de chartes paysagères se développe également bien qu’elles ne constituent que des documents prospectifs. La mise en œuvre de ces protections passe bien souvent par la réalisation d’un nouveau zonage.

Thanks to a precise delimitation, the AOC concept enhances the value of terroirs particularly suited to viticulture. Only the terroirs thus identified can produce wines with an AOC label. The name of the AOC can only be used for wines from the terroirs within the area of appellation; misuse is subject to legal sanctions. The delimitation thus established is designed to protect the AOC name. Conversely, the terroir delimited is not protected.
It comes, however, under regular attack :
– in practice: creation of roads, highways; housing estates, quarries…which reduce the appellation area;
– in theory : creation of factories; nuclear power plants, animal carcass transit centers, waste water treatment plants…that undermine the image of the appellation and may even impair the quality of production (pollution of the vineyard).
These threats are permanent and the tools for legal protection insufficient.

Protection should apply:
– when town and country planning documents are being drafted;
– when threatening projects are subject to legal inquiry.
Current procedures provide that :
– the INAO may play an advisory role only in certain specific cases;
– unions for the defense of appellations, in the event they deem harm may occur, may oblige decision-making authorities to consult the minister for agriculture prior to any decision.
Under no circumstances do decisions have to be in keeping with the opinions handed down. Legislators recently created the concept of “protected agricultural zone” (ZAP) designed to limit the number of building permits in these areas. However, not a single ZAP has as yet been set up.

In light of these shortcomings, certain professionals are turning towards protection via instruments to protect landscapes or exceptional sites: ZPPAUP, designation as UNESCO heritage. The drafting of landscape charters is also developing, although they are merely prospective documents. The actual implementation of these forms of protection often calls for new zoning.

DOI:

Publication date: February 15, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002

Type: Article

Authors

Charlotte ASSEMAT

Syndicat Général des Vignerons Réunis des Côtes du Rhône, 6, rue des 3 Faucons, 84000 AVIGNON

Contact the author

Keywords

Terroir viticole, AOC, protection juridique
Terroir, legal protection

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002

Citation

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