Effect of rising atmospheric CO2 levels on grapevine yield and composition by the middle of the 21st century: what can we learn from the VineyardFACE?
Atmospheric CO2 levels have been rising continuously since the industrial revolution, affecting crop physiology, yield and quality of harvest products, and grapevine is no exception . Most of previously reported studies used potted plants in controlled environments, and explored grapevine response to relatively high CO2 levels, 700 ppm or more. The vineyardFACE, established in Geisenheim in 2012, uses a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) system to simulate a moderate (ambient +20%) increase in atmospheric CO2 in a vineyard planted with cvs. Cabernet-Sauvignon and Riesling grafted on rootstock 161-49 Couderc and SO4, respectively. Using this experimental setup, we report a 3 years survey of grape yield, and berry composition responses to a moderate increase in ambient CO2. An increase in net assimilation in leaves was observed for both cultivars, as well as a significant increase in fruit yield per vine. Berry size was not significantly affected, even though a general trend of larger berries was noted under elevated CO2. Berry ripening dynamics and composition at harvest were largely unaffected by the CO2 level increase, with the noticeable exception that anthocyanin levels tended to be lower under elevated CO2, compared to ambient. Profiling of central carbon metabolism intermediates and branching points to secondary metabolism pathways confirmed this result in both cultivars. Must terpene content analysis in Riesling showed little impact of elevated CO2, suggesting that its aromatic potential was probably unaffected. In conclusion, our results indicate that, although predicted mid-century CO2 levels do have an impact on grapevine yield, grape composition and oenological potential will probably be largely unaffected. However, it is noteworthy that non significant but consistent trends have been observed throughout the years, suggesting that the continuous rise in CO2 during the second half of the 21st century may finally overcome berry metabolic plasticity and acclimation to elevated CO2.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a PhD grant from the German-French University to C. Kahn (grant # DGSEIP/A1-3 N°2019-0203).
1) Clemens M.E. et al. (2022) Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on the vineyard system of Vitis vinifera: a review. Am. J. Vitic. Enol. 73: 1-10, DOI 10.5344/ajev.2021.21029
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1EGFV, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2Department of General and Organic viticulture, Geisenheim University, Von-Lade Straße, Geisenheim, Germany
3Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Wissenschaftspark Potsdam-Golm, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany