Terroir 1996 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Extension to the Saumurois-Touraine area of an Anjou-originated method for the characterisation of the viticultural terroirs. (Loire Valley, France)

Extension to the Saumurois-Touraine area of an Anjou-originated method for the characterisation of the viticultural terroirs. (Loire Valley, France)


[English version below]

En Anjou, une méthode de caractérisation des terroirs viticoles a été développée. Elle utilise un modèle de terrain basé sur la profondeur de sol et son degré d’argilisation. Le modèle concerne des terrains issus principalement de roches mères métamorphiques et éruptives du Massif Armoricain. Cet outil de caractérisation des terroirs viticoles nécessite d’être adapté lorsqu’il s’agit d’ensembles géologiques très différents, en particulier sur sols d’apport et de roches mères tendres et poreuses du Bassin Parisien. Une meilleure compréhension de la réserve hydrique des sols apparaît être un critère important de l’interaction entre le milieu et la plante. Afin de mener à bien cette expérimentation, un réseau de parcelles d’étude a été mis en place sur cinq appellations d’origine contrôlée de la moyenne Vallée de la Loire.

In Anjou, a method for the characterisation of the viticultural terroirs has been developed. It uses a terrain model based on the depth of the soil and its clay content. The model applies to soils derived from metamorphic and igneous bed-rocks belonging to the Armorican Range. This tool for terroir characterisation needs to be adapted to different geologic systems, in particular to soils resting on soft and porous sedimentary bed-rocks belonging to the Parisian Basin. A better understanding of the water supply regime seems to be an important criteria of the interaction between the environment and the vine. To achieve this goal, a multisite network was established on five Appellations of Controlled Origin (A.O.C.) in the Mid-Loire valley.


Publication date: February 15, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002

Type: Article


Nicolas BOTTOIS (1), Elisabeth BESNARD (2), Etienne GOULET (2), Dominique RIOUX (2), Sébastien CESBRON (2), Adélaïde PALLUAU (2), Gérard BARBEAU (1)

(1) Unit Vigne et Vin- Centre INRA d’Angers. 42 rue Georges Morel; BP 57; 49071 Beaucouz Cedex
(2) Cellule Terroirs Viticoles – Chambre R gionale d’ Agriculture des Pays de la Loire


terroirs viticoles, méthode d’étude, extension
viticultural terroirs, studying method, extension


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002


Related articles…

The impact of sustainable management regimes on amino acid profiles in grape juice, grape skin flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids

One of the biggest challenges of agriculture today is maintaining food safety and food quality while providing ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, pest and disease control, ensuring water quality and supply, and climate regulation. Organic farming was shown to promote biodiversity and carbon sequestration, and is therefore seen as one possibility of environmentally friendly production. Consumers expect organically grown crops to be free from chemical pesticides and mineral fertilizers and often presume that the quality of organically grown crops is different or higher compared to conventionally grown crops. Integrated, organic, and biodynamic viticulture were compared in a replicated field trial in Geisenheim, Germany (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling). Amino acid profiles in juice, grape skin flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids were monitored over three consecutive seasons beginning 7 years after conversion to organic and biodynamic viticulture, respectively. In addition, parameters such as soil nutrient status, yield, vigor, canopy temperature, and water stress were monitored to draw conclusions on reasons for the observed changes. Results revealed that the different sustainable management regimes highly differed in their amino acid profiles in juice and also in their skin flavonol content, whereas differences in the flavanol and hydroxycinnamic acid content were less pronounced. It is very likely that differences in nutrient status and yield determined amino acid profiles in juice, although all three systems showed similar amounts of mineralized nitrogen in the soil. Canopy structure and temperature in the bunch zone did not differ among treatments and therefore cannot account for the observed differences in favonols. A different light exposure of the bunches in the respective systems due to differences in vigor together with differences in berry size and a different water status of the vines might rather be responsible for the increase in flavonol content under organic and biodynamic viticulture.

Impact of malolactic fermentation on volatile composition and sensory properties of white and rosé wine from the greek variety moschofilero

Moschofilero is a native grape variety, classified as a ‘gris’ type variety, that is cultivated in PDO Mantineia, Peloponissos, Greece. It is used for the production of both white and rosé wines. Due to high altitude of the vineyards, the harvest is done by mid October, and many vintages are characterised by high acidities and low pH values.


Malolactic fermentation (MLF)¹, the decarboxylation of L-malic acid into L-lactic acid, is performed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). MLF has a deacidifying effect that may compromise freshness or microbiological stability in wines² and can be inhibited by fumaric acid [E297] (FA). In wine, can be added at a maximum allowable dose of 0.6 g/L³. Its inhibition with FA is being studied as an alternative strategy to minimize added doses of SO₂⁴. In addition, wine yeasts are capable of metabolizing and storing small amounts of FA and during alcoholic fermentation (AF).


Premium red wines are often aged in oak barrel. This widespread winemaking process is used, among others, to provide roundness and complexity to the wine. The study of wine evolution during barrel aging is crucial to better ensure control of wine quality.
¹H-NMR has already been proved to be an efficient tool to monitor winemaking process [1]. Indeed, it is a non-destructive technique, it requires a small amount of sample and a short time of analysis, yet it provides clues about several chemical families.

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.