WAC 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 WAC 9 WAC 2022 9 3 - WAC - Oral 9 What happens with the glutathione during winemaking and the storage of the wine?

What happens with the glutathione during winemaking and the storage of the wine?


We tried to give a part of the answer to this question by monitoring glutathione during winemaking and storage. The novelty of our approach is to quantify simultaneously the three known forms of glutathione: free glutathione (GSH), oxidized form (GSSG) and glutathione-S-sulfonate (GSSO3H). This last molecule was reported first in wine by Arapatsis et al. (2016), who described the reaction between SO2 and GSSG resulting GSH and GSSO3H. Theoretically, GSH can further react with SO2, but this reaction is slow. This results obtained in model wine was now proved in grape juice, by measuring the kinetic of the reaction after the addition of SO2. For this purpose a LC-MS/MS analysis method was developed, which allows for the first time the quantification of GSSO3H beside of GSH and GSSG in the wine. 

The analyses of samples taken in the different moment of winemaking shows that in the must only GSH and GSSG are present. GSSO3H appears after the addition of SO2 at the end of the alcoholic fermentation. It appears also to be the dominant form of glutathione in SO2 containing wines after 3 months storage. The analysis of a hundred of wines showed a correlation between the relative concentration of GSSO3H and the total SO2 level of the wine. Temperature also effects the reaction rate. Grape variety does not seem to influence the formation of GSSO3H. 

We could conclude that SO2 contribute to release active GSH from the GSSG and so extend the protection potential against oxidation during the first months of storage. It remains the questions: Does GSSO3H have any antioxidant activity? Further investigation would be needed to address this question. However, in the meantime, its quantification is important in the wine to avoid underestimating the glutathione content.


Publication date: June 14, 2022

Issue: WAC 2022

Type: Article


Ágnes Dienes-Nagy, Frédéric Vuichard, Sandrine Belcher, Marie Blackford, Johannes Rösti, Fabrice Lorenzini

Presenting author

Ágnes Dienes-Nagy – Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland

Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland | Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland | Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland| Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland | Agroscope, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland 

Contact the author


glutathione, wine, glutathione-S-sulfonate, LC-MS/MS


IVES Conference Series | WAC 2022


Related articles…

Significance of factors making Riesling an iconic grape variety

Riesling is the iconic grape variety of Germany and accounts for 23% of the German viticulture acreage, which comprises 45% of the worldwide Riesling plantings. Riesling wines offer a wide array of styles from crisp sparkling wines to highly concentrated and sweet Trockenbeerenauslese or Icewines. However, its thin berry skin makes Riesling more vulnerable to detrimental environmental threats than other white wine varieties.  

Malolactic fermentation in wine production

What influence do these bacteria have on wines? What new bacteria are being studied to carry out this fermentation? Find below articles about malolactic fermentation published in our 3 media (OENO One, IVES Technical Reviews and IVES Conference Series). OENO One...

Metabolomics screening of Vitis sp. interspecific hybrids to select natural ingredients with cosmetic purposes

Introducing natural ingredients using green chemistry practices is a major challenge in cosmetics industry to follow the market trend. Among the plants of cosmetic interest, vine products show a remarkable diversity of natural substances with high potential for the cosmetic and dermatological sectors. To date, research focuses on well-known compounds like E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin,

WAC 2022: Abstracts are available on IVES Conference Series

In order to disseminate the scientific results presented during the WAC 2022 , the organizers have decided to share the abstracts of the oral communications and posters with Open Access on IVES Conference Series. The fifth edition of the International Conference...

Winemaking techniques and wine tasting methods at the end of the Middle Ages

Les pratiques de vinification et de dégustation du vin sont souvent perçues, à travers un discours marketing très puissant, sous l’angle d’une tradition millénaire qui perdure depuis le Moyen Âge. En Bourgogne, il est courant de rattacher les racines de ces pratiques à l’activité des institutions ecclésiastiques qui possédaient d