In the past, the contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking has always been considered negative for their limited enological attitude if compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In recent decades there has been a reevaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts especially when used in combination and in support with S. cerevisiae (mixed fermentation). In this regard, selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts could be profitable used to give distinctive features, to enhance flavor and aroma complexity and to reduce the ethanol content of wines. Further emerging trends in the use of these yeasts are related to their role as bioprotectants and producers of health promoters compounds.
The wine microbial ecosystem: Molecular interactions between yeast species and evidence for higher order interactions
Fermenting grape juice represents one of the oldest continuously maintained anthropogenic microbial environments and supports a well-mapped microbial ecosystem. Several yeast and bacterial species dominate this ecosystem, and some of these species are part of the globally most studied and best understood individual organisms. Detailed physiological, cellular and molecular data have been generated on these individual species and have helped elucidate complex evolutionary processes such as the domestication of wine yeast strains of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data support the notion that the wine making environment represents an ecological niche of significant evolutionary relevance. Taken together, the data suggest that the wine fermentation ecosystem is an excellent model to study fundamental questions about the working of microbial ecosystems and on the impact of biotic selection pressures on microbial ecosystem functioning. Indeed, and although well mapped, the rules and molecular mechanisms that govern the interactions between microbial species within this, and other, ecosystems remain underexplored. Here we present data derived from several converging approaches, including microbiome data of spontaneous fermentations, the population dynamics of constructed consortia, the application of biotic selection pressures in directed laboratory evolution, and the physiological and molecular analysis of pairwise and higher order interactions between yeast species. The data reveal the importance of cell wall-related elements in interspecies interactions and in evolutionary adaptation and suggest that predictive modelling and biotechnological control of the wine ecosystem during fermentation are promising strategies for wine making in future.
The wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis can be found at several steps in the winemaking process due to its resistance to multiple stress conditions. Among the resistance strategies, one could be the formation of biofilm, a lifestyle known to enhance persistence of microorganisms. In this study, we propose to characterize biofilm of B. bruxellensis in wine, especially through several microscopic analyses.
Currently, climate change represents one of the major issues for the wine sector. The increasing temperature already recorded and expected in the upcoming years reduce the vegetative cycle of the grape varieties planted in Bordeaux area, affecting the physicochemical parameters of grapes and consequently, the quality of wine. From a sensory point of view, the attenuation of the fresh fruity character in some varietals is accompanied by the accentuation of dried-fruit notes . As a new adaptive and ecological strategy on global warming, some winegrowers have initiated changes in the Bordeaux blend of vine varieties using late-ripening grape varieties .
The overall quality of fine wines is linked to the development of "bouquet" during wine bottle ageing1. Several chemical reactions, occurring in atmosphere protected from oxygen, are favourable to the formation and preservation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS accumulate in wines thanks to hydrolysis of its precursors (DMSp) mainly constituted by S-
Accurate Quantification of Quality Compounds and Varietal Classification from Grape Extracts using the Absorbance-Transmittance Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrix (A-TEEM) Method and Machine Learning
Rapid and accurate quantification of grape berry phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins, and identification of grape varieties are both important for effective quality control of harvesting and initial processing for wine making. Current reference technologies including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) can be rate limiting and too complex and expensive for effective field operations
Effect of post-harvest ozone treatment on secondary metabolites biosynthesis and accumulation in grapes and wine
The actual demand by consumers for safer and healthier food and beverage is pushing the wine sector to find alternative methods to avoid the use of sulphur dioxide in winemaking. Ozone is already used in the wine industry to produce sulphur dioxide-free wines through the patented method Purovino®.
Monitoring of Sangiovese red wine chemical and sensory parameters along one-year aging in different tank materials and glass bottle
The aim of this study was to test how different tank materials could affect the chemical composition and the sensory profile of a red wine during an entire year of aging. For this scope, a single varietal Sangiovese wine was aged, after completing its malolactic fermentation, by using tanks made by different materials. Six thesis were involved in the aging experiment, in particular: stainless
Stabulation (lees stirring) in must as a method for aroma intensification: A comparison with skin contact and a classical version of Traminer and Sauvignon blanc in Austria
In the course of this study, stabilisation (lees stirring in unclarified must) with skin contact and classic white wine vinification were compared for the Sauvignon blanc and Traminer varieties in Austria. The test wines were analysed for the volatile substances esters, free monoterpenes and fruity thiols
Fermentation Products, Degradation Parameters, (Poly)Phenols And Potassium Content In Tokaji Aszú Winemaking
The historic Tokaj Wine Region in northeast Hungary, a UNESCO World Heritage region since 2002, encompasses 5,500 ha vineyards. Produced from “noble rot” grapes, Tokaji Aszú is known as one of the oldest botrytized wines all over the world. Special microclimatic conditions (due to Bodrog and Tisza rivers, Indian summer), soil conditions (clay, loess on volcanic bedrock) and grape
The market share of Rosé wine in France has grown from 11 % to 32 % over the last 20 years. Current trends are towards rosé wines of a lighter shade of pink, and where possible, containing a greater concentration in varietal thiols. Grape varieties, the soil on which they are grown, viticultural practices and winemaking technology all impact the polyphenols, color and aromas of rosé wines.
Impact of aspects of the polysaccharide structure of mannoproteins on their interactions with Enological Tannins
Mannoproteins (MPs) with different structure of their polysaccharide part (branching, substitutions, …) were used to better understand the impact of characteristics of the usual structure of MPs when interacting with Grape Seed Tannins (ST).
The quality of red wine depends on the composition of polyphenols influencing wine color and taste. The question is, how much we must fear over extraction, especially of seed tannins, under cool climate conditions. The extraction of polyphenols from grape skins and grape seeds were investigated for the grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir
Role of Grape-Extractable Polyphenols in the Generation of Strecker Aldehydes and in the Instability of Polyfunctional Mercaptans during Wine Oxidation
Wine longevity is a complex multifactor phenomenon in which the weight of the different factors is not well known. One of the key factors of wine longevity is related to its resistance to oxidation. This property can be defined as the ability of the wine, under an exposure to oxygen, to keep its color, avoid accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (SA), and keep as long as
S’il n’existe pas de réglementation officielle, la démarche des vins naturels prône un retour aux pratiques dites ancestrales préconisant notamment un mode d’élaboration des vins utilisant le moins d’intrants possible. Le seul autorisé reste l’anhydride sulfureux (SO2) à des doses quatre à cinq fois moins importantes que pour les vins dits conventionnels. Ce désir de renouer avec