Health benefits of wine industry by-products
The total global production of wine in 2021 was estimated at around 250 million hectoliters. The 30% of the total quantity of vinified grapes corresponds to wine by-products that represent nearly 20 million tons, of which 50% corresponds to the European Union. Wine by-products have been used for different purposes, in agriculture, cosmetics, pharmacy, biorefinery, feed, and the food industry. The main waste streams with food interest are grape pomace (GP) and wine lees. GP is the residue that originated after the pressing of red and white grapes to produce must or wine. It is constituted by the stems, skins, and seeds. GP is a winery by-product that is more and more valorized as a source of healthy bioactive molecules, such as polyphenols and other interesting molecules (pigments, fibers, minerals, etc.). The main polyphenols detected in grape pomace include hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and stilbenes. Phenolic compounds from grapes exert positive benefits on human health; many of these compounds have been shown to have potent antioxidant activities. Significant antioxidant activity has been observed from pomace and seed flour extract of grapes. Grape seed extract may be useful for the prevention of certain metabolic syndromes and cardiovascular disease. Grape and grape products also possess other important properties including anti-radiation, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and other beneficial effects. The abundance of bioactive compounds assures a promising future to produce nutritional foodstuffs. Wine by-products can be valuably used to fortify aromatized waters and infusions, bread, pasta, dairy products, alcohol, sugary beverages, and processed foods. These innovative products that could be included in Mediterranean Diet are of great interest for our health and our planet.
Issue: WAC 2022