Grape pomace is one of the main by-products generated after pressing in wine-making. It’s valorization through the extraction of bioactive compounds is the answer for the development of sustainable processes. Nevertheless, in the recovery of anthocyanins derivatives, the extraction stage continues to be a limiting step. The nature of the sample and the type of solvent determine the efficiency of the process. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of grapes and wine, a characteristic that is defined by their chemical structure. The color stability in their native form is affected by factors such as pH, temperature, and their chemical structure, which could limit their use as a natural colorant in the food industry. However, there are anthocyanin-derived pigments found in wines. The main interest in these pigments is that they present greater color stability against pH changes and SO2 bleaching than native anthocyanin. Emerging methods such as ultrasound-assisted eutectic mixture extraction have a high potential due to the low toxicity, chemical inertness with water, easy preparation, and huge biodegradability. There are four types of eutectic solvents, however, the mixtures that are formed from salt and a natural component such as alcohols, sugars, and organic acids are the most used in the extraction processes of bioactive compounds. The compounds were mixed with a 1:1 molar ratio with choline chloride (ChCl) as hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and its corresponding hydrogen bond donor (HBD) (malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, glucose and glycerol: urea), heated at a constant temperature of 80 °C and stirring at 700 rpm until a transparent liquid was obtained. Then the volume of distilled water corresponding to each mixture (30 % v / v) was added. The extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic bath at room temperature for 45 min. A solid-liquid ratio of 1 g of pomace per 10 ml of solvent was used. Total anthocyanins were determined using the differential pH method measured by a spectrophotometer. The highest extraction using NADES corresponds to the mixtures composed of choline chloride: glucose and choline chloride: urea: glycerol reaching a value of 4.57 and 4.36 mg eq of malvidin-3-O-glucoside /g of grape pomace respectively. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for a value of p≤0.05 between the mixtures containing citric acid and tartaric acid, obtaining values of 0.81 and 0.69 mg eq of malvidin -3-O-glucoside /g grape pomace respectively. Although it is known that anthocyanins are more stable in acidic media, the extraction values obtained for mixtures with acids were lower than expected.
Authors: Salas Erika1, Castellanos-Gallo Lilisbet1, Ballinas-Casarrubias Lourdes1, Espinoza-Hicks José Carlos1 and Hernández-Ochoa León1
1Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
*corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: grape pomace, extraction, anthocyanins derivatives, natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES)