IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Impact of the fumaric acid/glutathione pair addition before bottling on Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality

Impact of the fumaric acid/glutathione pair addition before bottling on Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality


Over the last decades, climate change and rising temperatures have impacted the wine industry. Wines from warm regions tend to have a higher pH and lower total acidity. This lack of acidity leads to microbiologically unstable wines (1). Because of the high pH values, higher doses of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are needed to protect the wines, which is in contradiction with the wish of consumers to reduce the use of SO2 in wine. Glutathione (GSH) is known for its antioxidant properties and is already used in white wines to help prevent browning and early spoilage signs (2,3). Fumaric acid (FA), in addition to its high acidifying power, can also be interesting for its antibacterial and antifungal properties (4,5). GSH combined with FA (GSH+FA) could be a candidate to help reduce the use of SO2. Thus, the study aims to evaluate the impact of addition at bottling of GSH, by itself and combined with FA on the quality of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine.
A sulfite free Cabernet Sauvignon wine was split into two batches: one was kept sulfite-free and the other one was sulfited (80 mg/L). In both batches, FA (0 or 2g/L) and/or glutathione (0, 25 or 50 mg/L), were added. Classical oenological parameters (pH, titratable acidity), color parameters (color intensity, CIELAB), total phenolic compounds (IPT, Folin, total anthocyanins and total tannins), antioxidant capacities (DPPH and CUPRAC) were analyzed just after bottling and six months later. Treated wines were compared to the non-sulfited (NS) and sulfited (S) control wines. Sensory analyses were also performed on wines.


(1) Mira de Orduña, R. Climate Change Associated Effects on Grape and Wine Quality and Production. Food Research International 2010, 43 (7), 1844–1855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.05.001.
(2) Wegmann-Herr, P., Ullrich, S., Schmarr, H. G., & Durner, D. (2016). Use of glutathione during white wine production–impact on S-off-flavors and sensory production. In BIO Web of Conferences (Vol. 7, p. 02031). EDP Sciences.
(3) Kritzinger, E. C.; Bauer, F. F.; du Toit, W. J. Role of Glutathione in Winemaking: A Review. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61 (2), 269–277. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf303665z.
(4) Morata, A.; Bañuelos, M. A.; López, C.; Song, C.; Vejarano, R.; Loira, I.; Palomero, F.; Lepe, J. A. S. Use of Fumaric Acid to Control PH and Inhibit Malolactic Fermentation in Wines. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 2020, 37 (2), 228–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2019.1684574.
(5) Akao, M., & Kuroda, K. (1991). Antifungal activity of fumaric acid in mice infected with Candida albicans. Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, 39(11), 3077-3078. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.39.3077


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Payan Claire1,2, Gancel Anne-Laure1, Christmann Monika2 and Teissedre Pierre-Louis1

1Unité de recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux
2Hochschule Geisenheim University, Von Lade Straße, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany

Contact the author


Fumaric acid, glutathione, color, phenolic compounds, organoleptic quality


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Significance of factors making Riesling an iconic grape variety

Riesling is the iconic grape variety of Germany and accounts for 23% of the German viticulture acreage, which comprises 45% of the worldwide Riesling plantings. Riesling wines offer a wide array of styles from crisp sparkling wines to highly concentrated and sweet Trockenbeerenauslese or Icewines. However, its thin berry skin makes Riesling more vulnerable to detrimental environmental threats than other white wine varieties.  

Malolactic fermentation in wine production

What influence do these bacteria have on wines? What new bacteria are being studied to carry out this fermentation? Find below articles about malolactic fermentation published in our 3 media (OENO One, IVES Technical Reviews and IVES Conference Series). OENO One...

Metabolomics screening of Vitis sp. interspecific hybrids to select natural ingredients with cosmetic purposes

Introducing natural ingredients using green chemistry practices is a major challenge in cosmetics industry to follow the market trend. Among the plants of cosmetic interest, vine products show a remarkable diversity of natural substances with high potential for the cosmetic and dermatological sectors. To date, research focuses on well-known compounds like E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin,

WAC 2022: Abstracts are available on IVES Conference Series

In order to disseminate the scientific results presented during the WAC 2022 , the organizers have decided to share the abstracts of the oral communications and posters with Open Access on IVES Conference Series. The fifth edition of the International Conference...

Winemaking techniques and wine tasting methods at the end of the Middle Ages

Les pratiques de vinification et de dégustation du vin sont souvent perçues, à travers un discours marketing très puissant, sous l’angle d’une tradition millénaire qui perdure depuis le Moyen Âge. En Bourgogne, il est courant de rattacher les racines de ces pratiques à l’activité des institutions ecclésiastiques qui possédaient d