IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 1H-NMR-based Untargeted Metabolomics to assess the impact of soil type on the chemical composition of Mediterranean red wines

1H-NMR-based Untargeted Metabolomics to assess the impact of soil type on the chemical composition of Mediterranean red wines

Abstract

Untargeted metabolomics has proven to be an effective method to study the impact of the terroir on metabolic profile of wines. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil types on the chemical composition of Mediterranean red wines, through 1H-NMR metabolomics combined with chemometrics.Grapes from Nero d’Avola L. red cultivar cultivated on four different soil types were separately vinified to obtain four different red wines.One milliliter of raw wine was analyzed by means of a Bruker Avance II 400 spectrometer operating at 400.15 MHz. The 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 298.8 K by applying the NOESYGPPS1D pulse sequency, to achieve water and ethanol signals suppression.The free induction decay (FID) was collected into a time domain of 65536 real data points (64 k), with a spectral width of 8012.82 Hz, a relaxation delay of 4 s and acquisition time of 4 s per scan.The solvent used was D2O, which provided a field frequency lock and the chemical shift reference. No quantitative internal standard was used, and no modification of the pH was performed, to avoid any chemical alteration of the matrix. Signal assignment was performed by comparison to pure compounds spectra by means of Simple Mixture Analysis (SMA) plug-in of MNova 14.2.3 software.The generation of input variables was done via bucketing the spectra within the range 0.50-9.50 ppm. The NMR spectral data were reduced into 0.01 ppm spectral buckets. The resulting dataset was log transformed and scaled to Pareto variance prior to perform unsupervised PCA, by means of MetaboAnalyst web-based tool suite.The PCA reduced the number of original variables (890) to three Principal Components that, combined, accounted for 100 % of the total variance. The 3D PCA scores plot revealed a clear differentiation among the wines. The 3D PCA loadings plot revealed the fragments of the spectra contributing mostly to the separation, that were attributed to flavonoids, aroma compounds and amino acids. The results were related to soils physical-chemical analysis and showed that: 1) high concentrations of flavan-3-ols and flavonols are correlated with high clay content in soils; 2) high concentrations of anthocyanins, amino acids, and aroma compounds are correlated with neutral and moderately alkaline soil pH; 3) low concentrations of flavonoids and aroma compounds are correlated with high soil organic matter content and acidic pH.The 1H-NMR metabolomic analysis combined with chemometrics proved to be an excellent tool to discriminate between wines originating from grapes grown on different soil types and revealed that soils in the Mediterranean area exert a strong impact on the chemical composition of the wines.

DOI:

Publication date: June 27, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster

Authors

Bambina Paola1, Spinella Alberto2, Corona Onofrio1, Cinquanta Luciano1 and Conte Pellegrino1

1Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Sciences, University of Palermo
2Advanced Technologies Network Center (ATeN Center), University of Palermo

Contact the author

Keywords

Non-Targeted Metabolomics, 1H-NMR, Chemometrics, Terroir, Soil

Tags

IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

UNRAVELING THE CHEMICAL MECHANISM OF MND FORMATION IN RED WINE DURING BOTTLE AGING : IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW GLUCOSYLATED HYDROXYKETONE PRO-PRECURSOR

During bottle aging, the development of wine aroma through low and gradual oxygen exposure is often positive in red wines, but can be unfavorable in many cases, resulting in a rapid loss of fresh, fruity flavors. Prematurely aged wines are marked by intense prune and fig aromatic nuances that dominate the desirable bouquet achieved through aging (Pons et al., 2013). This aromatic defect, in part, is caused by the presence of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND). MND content was shown to be lower in nonoxidized red wines and higher in oxidized red wines, which systematically exceeds the odor detection threshold (62 ng/L).

Vintage by vine interactions most strongly influence Pinot noir grape and wine composition in New Zealand

Vine genetics, fruit maturity, region and vineyard are perceived as factors that strongly influence Pinot noir grape and wine composition. Our study aims to understand the relationship between grape (and ultimately wine) composition and the physical appearance and performance characteristics of a vine (i.e. vine ideotype). Our experimental approach controlled these variables by

Influence of the agronomic management on the aroma of Riesling wines

Nitrogen fertilisation of grapevines is known to influence not only plant development and production yield, but also yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN). This parameter is related to the growth of yeast

A comparative study on physiological responses to drought in wild Vitis species 

The crossings of three wild Vitis species are commonly used as rootstocks in wine production worldwide. Factors such as disease resistance and vigor are most important for their selection.
With climate change extending drought conditions and water limitations, the selection of rootstocks conferring increased tolerance to drought takes on greater importance. Therefore, identifying Vitis species with improved drought tolerance and incorporating them into breeding programs could contribute to more resilient rootstocks under water limiting conditions. Furthermore, those species serve as a valuable resource to increase genetic variability of rootstocks. We hypothesize that species native to drier habitats will exhibit superior physiological performance under drought stress.

Impact of enological enzymes on aroma profile of Prosecco wines during second fermentation and sur lie aging

Proseccco is a famous italian Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) produced in two regions: Veneto e Friuli Venezia Giulia, however, the production is mainly concentrated in the province of Treviso. These territories are characterized by plains with some hilly areas and temperate climate. Its Production regulation provides a minimum utilization of 85% of Glera grapes, a local white grape variety, and up to a maximum of 15% of other local and international varieties. Prosecco second fermentation takes place, according to the Charmat method, in autoclaves.