The 1000 grapevine genomes project: Cataloguing Australia’s grapevine germplasm
Grapevine cultivars can be unequivocally typed by both physical differences (ampelography) and genetic tests. However due to their very similar characteristics, the identification of clones within a cultivar relies on the accurate tracing of supply records to the point of origin. Such records are not always available or reliable, particularly for older accessions. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) provides the most highly detailed methodology for defining grapevine cultivars and more importantly, this can be extended to differentiating clones within those cultivars.
The AWRI has developed a world-first clonal sequencing methodology that combines the latest next-generation genome sequencing technologies, high-performance computing and customised bioinformatics tools. This technique has been successfully used to define clonal variation across 1000 accessions of 20 different cultivars obtained from nurseries and vineyards throughout Australia.
To aid in the phylogenetic analysis and identification of intra-cultivar somatic mutations, long-read reference genomes were produced for several cultivars, including Shiraz, Grenache and Sauvignon Blanc. These reference genomes were also used to detect unique structural variations that may be important drivers of the phenotypic differences observed between these cultivars.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Wine Australia, with levies from Australia’s grapegrowers and winemakers and matching funds from the Australian Government. Support for DNA sequencing was provided by Bioplatforms Australia as part of the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy, an initiative of the Australian Government. The AWRI is a member of the Wine Innovation Cluster (WIC) in Adelaide.
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1The Australian Wine Research Institute, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia