Genetic prospecting of rainfed viticulture in the region with the largest cultivated area in Chile
The Maule region hosts up to a third of the total area of vineyards in Chile, in an environment where ancient practices inherited from the colonial past coexist with modernity and dynamism that include technified irrigation and fine vines. In the dry land of Maule there is a viticulture that has subsisted with ancient vines and traditions transmitted over generations, and there is little clarity about the origin and classification of the Maule viticulture, giving rise to the use of different concepts as synonyms to describe the ancient, minority, patrimonial or Criollas vines. In order to characterize and protect the ancient material, we studied the genetic diversity of a territorial collection that covers 80% of the communes of the region, prioritizing plants established more than 40-60 years ago. The genetic analysis was performed with 27 SSR genetic markers. The primary analysis allowed us to identify varieties previously registered as modern, traditional of colonial origin, others post phylloxera and finally the group of Criollas vines derived from crosses between those of colonial origin. Secondary analysis allowed us to identify the genealogy and genetic diversity of the ancient material. In the Criollas family, up to 20 new F1 genotypes, derived from the old vines of colonial origin, have been identified, some of them are widely propagated throughout the region and the country, finally a second generation Criolla was also identified. The very low rate of self-pollination events, the clonal propagation of the created material and the existence of several dozens of Criollas genotypes suggest the early appearance of breeding activities with South American identity during the colonial past and not necessarily from natural origin.
Financed by FIC-R GORE MAULE Code BIP 40.018.935-0 and FIA PYT 0036 2020
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Centro Regional La Platina. Avenida Santa Rosa 11610, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile
2 Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Centro Regional de Investigación Raihuén. Avenida Esperanza s/n Estación Villa Alegre, Linares, Chile