terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Identification of a stable epi-allele associated with flower development and low bunch compactness in a somatic variant of Tempranillo Tinto

Identification of a stable epi-allele associated with flower development and low bunch compactness in a somatic variant of Tempranillo Tinto

Abstract

Grapevine cultivars are vegetatively propagated to preserve their varietal characteristics. However, spontaneous somatic variations that occur and are maintained during cycles of vegetative growth offer opportunities for the natural improvement of traditional grape cultivars. One advantageous trait for winegrowing is reduced bunch compactness, which decreases the susceptibility to pests and fungal diseases and favor an even berry ripening. In this study, we examined a loose bunch somatic variant of Tempranillo Tinto cultivar (TT) to elucidate the molecular basis underlying this variation. The variant displayed a masculinized flower phenotype, characterized by an underdeveloped yet functional gynoecium, with reduced development of the style, stigma and septum, as compared to the complete hermaphroditic flowers typically observed in TT. Genetic analysis of its self-progeny demonstrated the co-segregation of the masculinized flower phenotype with the hermaphrodite allele of the grape sex locus (SDR)[1]. While genome re-sequencing did not identify any genetic variation within the SDR locus, an RNA-seq analysis identified one SDR-located gene over-expressed in the somatic variant compared to a control TT clone. The hermaphrodite allele was specifically over-expressed in the variant. Both Illumina WGBS and Nanopore epigenomic analyses identified a hermaphrodite allele-specific hyper-methylated region upstream of the upregulated gene. Analysis of chromatin conformation capture (3C) revealed a three-dimensional rearrangement of the locus, including the presence of a novel 36 kb chromatin loop delimiting the hyper-methylated region, which could be responsible for the over-expression and the phenotype. These findings indicate that somatic epi-alleles in the SDR locus can determine variation in gynoecium development leading to decreased fruit set and looser bunches in grapevine.

Acknowledgements: This study is part of the projects BIO-2017-86375-R and PID2020-120183RB-I00, and PRE-2018-086017 grant funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. This study is also part of the vWISE project.

1)  Massonnet, M., Cochetel, N., Minio, A., Vondras, A. M., Lin, J., Muyle, A., Garcia, J. F., Zhou, Y., Delledonne, M., Riaz, S., Figueroa-Balderas, R., Gaut, B. S., & Cantu, D. (2020). The genetic basis of sex determination in grapes. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1–12. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16700-z

DOI:

Publication date: October 4, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Alañón, Noelia1*; Ferradás, Yolanda2; Lijavetzky, Diego3; Ferrero, Lucía4; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel1; Ariel, Federico4; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo1; Ibáñez, Javier1

1 Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV, CSIC-CAR-UR), Departamento de Viticultura, Logroño, Spain
2 Departamento de Biología Funcional, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3 Instituto de Biología Agrícola de Mendoza (IBAM), CONICET, FCA-UNCuyo, Almirante Brown 500, M5528AHB, Chacras de Coria, Mendoza, Argentina
4 Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Colectora Ruta Nacional 168km 0, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina

Contact the author*

Keywords

bunch compactness, somatic variation, flower development, chromatin conformation, epiallele

Tags

2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Control of bacterial growth in carbonic maceration winemaking through yeast inoculation

Controlling the development of the bacterial population during the winemaking process is essential for obtaining correct wines[1]. Carbonic Maceration (CM) wines are recognised as high-quality young wines. However, due to its particularities, CM winemaking implies a higher risk of bacterial growth: lower SO2 levels, enrichment of the must in nutrients, oxygen trapped between the clusters… Therefore, wines produced by CM have slightly higher volatile acidity values than those produced by the destemming/crushing method[2].

Atypical aging and hydric stress: insights on an exceptionally dry year

Atypical aging (ATA) is a white wine fault characterized by the appearance of notes of wet rag, acacia blossoms and naphthalene, along with the vanishing of varietal aromas. 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP) – a degradation compound of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) – is regarded as the main sensorial and chemical marker responsible for this defect. About the origin of ATA, a stress reaction occurring in the vineyard has been looked as the leading cause of this defect. Agronomic, climatic and pedological factors are the main triggers and among them, drought stress seems to play a crucial role.[1]

A comprehensive study on the effect of foliar mineral treatments on grapevine microbiota, flavonoid gene expression, and berry composition

Recently, foliar treatments with mineral-based compounds have shown positive effects on grapevine production by protecting grape from thermal excesses and reducing the decoupling between technological and phenolic maturity caused by climate change. Unraveling the effect of mineral particle applications on grape-associated microbes is pivotal for successful wine processing, due to the influence of the microbiota on wine composition and stability. To our knowledge, this is the first work that comprehensively studied the effects of kaolin and chabasite-rich zeolitites treatments on grape-related microorganisms (by real-time PCR quantification of total fungi, Hanseniospora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, plant-associated bacteria and lactic acid bacteria), the expression of genes related to the flavonoid biosynthesis (PAL1, CHS1, F3H2, DFR, LDOX, UFGT, MYBA1, GST4, FLS4 genes) and the berry composition (°Brix, pH, acidity and anthocyanin concentrations) in cv. Sangiovese during ripening in two growing seasons (2019 and 2020).

Retrospective analysis of our knowledge regarding the genetics of relevant traits for rootstock breeding 

Rootstocks were the first sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy to cope with a major threat for Vitis vinifera cultivation. In addition to providing Phylloxera resistance, they play an important role in protecting against other soil-borne pests, such as nematodes, and in adapting V. vinifera to limiting abiotic conditions. Today viticulture has to adapt to ongoing climate change whilst simultaneously reducing its environmental impact. In this context, rootstocks are a central element in the development of agro-ecological practices that increase adaptive potential with low external inputs. Despite the apparent diversity of the Vitis genus, only few rootstock varieties are used worldwide and most of them have a very narrow genetic background. This means that there is considerable scope to breed new, improved rootstocks to adapt viticulture for the future.

Investigation of cellulose nanofiber-based films used as a protective layer to reduce absorption of smoke phenols into wine grapes

Volatile phenols from wildfire smoke are absorbed by wine grapes, resulting in undesirable smoky and ashy sensory attributes in the affected wine.[1] Unfortunately the severity of wildfires is increasing, particularly when grapes are ripening on the vine. The unwanted flavors of the wine prompted a need for solutions to prevent the uptake of smoke compounds into wine grapes. Films using cellulose nanofibers as the coating forming matrix were developed as an innovative means to prevent smoke phenols from entering Pinot noir grapes. Different film formulations were tested by incorporating low methoxy pectin or chitosan.