terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Sparkling wines and atypical aging: investigating the risk of refermentation

Sparkling wines and atypical aging: investigating the risk of refermentation


Sparkling wine (SW) production entails a two-steps process where grape must undergoes a primary fermentation to produce a base wine (BW) which is then refermented to become a SW. This process allows for the development of a new physicochemical profile characterized by the presence of foam and a different organoleptic profile.

Atypical aging is a sensorial fault that can occur soon after bottling. Characterized by the appearance of unpleasant scents (mothballs, damp towel and furniture polish) and the loss of varietal aroma, its chemical and sensorial origin is attributed to the presence of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP), a degradation compound of indole-3-lactic acid (IAA). While at biological level this plant auxin is carefully regulated via bonding with amino acids or sugars, during fermentation, yeast is capable of freeing up unbound IAA. In the presence of oxidizing agents, its conversion into AAP leads to the appearance of ATA in wine.[1] Since yeast-related biochemical mechanisms are involved in the development of this fault and SW production entails a double fermentation process, the final product deserves extra attention in terms of ATA development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the likelihood of producing tainted SW. To do so, 55 grape musts of 12 different varieties harvested over three vintages were fermented twice, initially to make the BWs and then the SWs. Interestingly, it was found that not only refermentation and storage increased the AAP content but also that the danger of producing ATA-tainted wines does not end with the making of SW. Indeed, upon an accelerated aging test, it was observed that the concentration of AAP was even increased. By using the data obtained from the BW samples, an ANCOVA model of linearization able to predict the formation of AAP upon refermentation with a R2 of 0.7 was created.

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Cavit sc. for the technical and financial support.


1)  Schneider V. (2014) Atypical aging defect: Sensory discrimination, viticultural causes, and enological consequences. Rev. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 65:277–284, DOI 10.5344/ajev.2014.14014
2)  Christoph, N., et al. (1998) Bildung von 2-Aminoacetophenon und Formylaminoacetophenon im Wein durch Einwirkung von schwefliger Säure auf Indol-3-essigsäure. Vitic. Enol. Sci 53.2, 79-86.


Publication date: October 5, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Article


Simone Delaiti1,2*, Tomas Roman2, Tiziana Nardin2, Stefano Pedo’2, Roberto Larcher2

1C3A, Center Agriculture Food Environment, Via Edmund Mach, 1, San Michele all’Adige, TN, 38010 Italy
2Technology Transfer Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all’Adige, Italy

Contact the author*


atypical aging, sparkling wine, refermentation


2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Water and nutritional savings shape non-structural carbohydrates in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cuttings

Global changes and sustainability challenge researchers in saving water and nutrients. The response of woody crops, which can be forced at facing more drought events during their life, is particularly important. Vitis vinifera can be an important model for its relevance in countries subjected to climate changes and its breeding, requiring cuttings plantation and strong pruning.

Retrospective analysis of our knowledge regarding the genetics of relevant traits for rootstock breeding 

Rootstocks were the first sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy to cope with a major threat for Vitis vinifera cultivation. In addition to providing Phylloxera resistance, they play an important role in protecting against other soil-borne pests, such as nematodes, and in adapting V. vinifera to limiting abiotic conditions. Today viticulture has to adapt to ongoing climate change whilst simultaneously reducing its environmental impact. In this context, rootstocks are a central element in the development of agro-ecological practices that increase adaptive potential with low external inputs. Despite the apparent diversity of the Vitis genus, only few rootstock varieties are used worldwide and most of them have a very narrow genetic background. This means that there is considerable scope to breed new, improved rootstocks to adapt viticulture for the future.

New food trend ahead? Highlighting the nutritional benefits of grapevine leaves

The wine industry produces an enormous amount of waste every year. A wider inclusion of disregarded by-products in the human diet or its use as a source of bioactive compounds is a good strategy for reducing waste. It will not only introduce an added value to a waste product but also come upon the European Union and United Nations’ demands towards more sustainable agricultural approaches and circular economy.

Assessing the Effectiveness of Electrodialysis in Controlling Brettanomyces Growth in Wine

Brettanomyces yeast can negatively impact the quality and stability of wines, posing a significant challenge to winemakers. [1] This study aims to develop novel management practices to limit Brettanomyces impact on wines by evaluating the effectiveness of electrodialysis (ED) technology in removing magnesium (Mg2+) from wine to prevent the development of Brettanomyces yeast. The ED technique utilizes charged membranes to extract ions from the wine, and it is considered an alternative to cold stabilization that requires less energy. [2]

Effects of laccase from Botrytis cinerea on the oxidative degradation kinetics of the five natural grape anthocyanins

Enzymatic browning[1] is an oxidation process that occurs in many foods that increases the brown colour[2]. This problem is especially harmful in the wine industry[3]. especially when the grapes are infected by grey rot since this fung release the oxidative enzyme laccase[4]. In the particular case of red wines, the presence of laccase implies the deterioration of the red colour and can even cause the precipitation of the coloring matter (oxidasic haze)[5].