The potential of some native varieties of Argentina for the production of sparkling wines. Effect of lees contact time
Grapevine varieties from South-America, commonly known as criollas, originated because of the natural crossbreeding of grapevine varieties brought by the Spaniards. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of some varieties to produce sparkling wines considering the effect of lees contact time. The following varieties were used: Moscatel Rosado, Criolla Chica, Pedro Gimenez, Blanca Oval, Canelón, and the European variety Chardonnay (control), planted in the ampelographic collection of EEA Mendoza INTA (Argentina). Pilot-scale vinifications were carried out to obtain the base wines, in 20 L glass containers. The second fermentation was performed through the traditional method. A completely randomized design was applied in triplicate. The treatments were: T1, 135 days of lees contact (LC); T2, 180 days LC; T3, 270 days LC; and T4, 360 days LC. General chemical analyses were carried out according to OIV methods, proteins and polysaccharides characterization by HRSEC-RID, and sensory analyses using the flash profile technique. The base wines had the following analytical parameters: total acidity 7.0 ± 0.5 g/L; pH 3.20 ± 0.15; alcohol 12.0 ± 0.2 % v/v, and volatile acidity 0.35 ± 0.15 g/L. At the sensory level, in the Moscatel Rosado wines, floral and fruity notes were prominent in T1 and T2, decreasing towards T3 and T4. For the Pedro Giménez and Blanca Oval varieties, fruit descriptors predominated in T1 and T2, which then decreased significantly over time (T3 and T4). Criolla Chica and Canelón were characterized by attributes of nuts and toasted bread, especially with longer lees contact time. In general, all varieties showed good balance in the mouth, but Chardonnay stood apart from the rest, with descriptors such as yeast, mouthfeel, and higher color intensity. These results revealed the technological potential of autochthonous genetic material to diversify the production of sparkling wines, providing regional identity.
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Estación Experimental Mendoza. San Martín 3853. CP 5507EVY, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina.
2Malpensado Wines, Mendoza, Argentina.
3Universidad Juan Agustín Maza. Centro de Estudios Vitícolas y Agroindustriales. Lateral Sur del Acceso Este 2245.CP 5519 Guaymallén, Mendoza, Argentina.
4Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (Gobierno de La Rioja, CSIC, Universidad de La Rioja). Ctra. de Burgos, Km. 6. CP 26007 Logroño, La Rioja, España.
5Universidad Rovira i Virgili. Facultad de Enología. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biotecnología. C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona, España.