Differences in metabolism among species and hybrids of the genus Saccharomyces during wine fermentation unveiled by multi-omic analysis
Yeast species S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii and their hybrids present clear metabolic differences, even when we compared S. cerevisiae wine versus wild strain. These species and hybrids produced significantly higher amounts of glycerol, organic acids, 2,3-butanediol, and 2-phenyl ethanol and a reduction of the ethanol yield, properties very interesting in the sector to deal with climate change effects. To understand the existing differences, we have used several omics techniques to analyze the dynamics of the (intra- and extracellular) metabolomes and/or transcriptomes of representative strains of S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, and hybrids. These data indicate that the NADH/NADH+ cofactor regeneration is different among these species. We also observed that these species produce more erythritol, never described before as a by-product in S. cerevisiae. Using phylogenetic and genetic comparative approaches with Y. lipolytica erythrose reductases, we demonstrated that ΔGRE3 was the single mutant that decreased erythritol production.
Related to the ethanol yield, by whole genome comparative analysis, we have detected an ADH2 allele specific to the wine strains, derived from an ADH1–ADH2 gene conversion. This allele results in a lower affinity for ethanol and a higher affinity for acetaldehyde and provides an advantage over other strains in wine fermentation.
Finally, we will explain how can we apply this knowledge to optimize the wine processes using digital twins.
Acknowledgements: PID2021-126380OB-C31 and PID2021-126380OB-C33, AGROALNEXT/2022/021, PLEC2021-007827; MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, as a ‘Severo Ochoa’ Center of Excellence (CEX2021-001189-S).
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1 Food Biotechnology Department (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, Spain
2 Genetics Department (University of Valencia), Valencia, Spain
3 Biosistemas e Ingeniería de Bioprocesos, IIM-CSIC, Vigo, Spain
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Saccharomyces, wine fermentation, kinetic and genome-scale metabolic model; digital twin