terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Metabolomics for grape and wine research: exploring the contributions of amino acids to wine flavour

Metabolomics for grape and wine research: exploring the contributions of amino acids to wine flavour

Abstract

A critical aspect of wine quality is the overall expression of wine flavour, which is formed by the interplay of volatile aroma compounds, their precursors, and taste and matrix components.

Grapes directly contribute to wine only a small number of potent aroma compounds, and the unique sensory attributes and perceived quality of a wine result from combining 100s of metabolites of grapes, yeast and bacteria, and oak wood.

So far only a relatively small proportion of flavour-active secondary metabolites in grapes has been extensively studied, including organic acids, polyphenols and some non-volatile aroma precursors such as glycoconjugates or glutathione.

In this presentation a summary will be presented about current technologies for metabolite analysis and key aspects for developing successful metabolomics applications in grape and wine research. Topics covered include methods for MS and NMR-based metabolomics and the application of metabolomics approaches to characterise the contributions of amino acids to wine flavour.

DOI:

Publication date: February 11, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Markus Herderich

The Australian Wine Research Institute – Urrbrae (Adelaide), Australia

Contact the author*

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

Managing changes in taste: lessons from champagne in britain 1800-1914

This paper focuses on how taste in wine (and other foods) changes and the implications of this process for producers and merchants. It draws primarily on the changing taste of and taste for champagne in Britain in the 19th century. Between 1850 and 1880 champagne went from a dosage level of around 20% (20 grams sugar / litre) to 0%. Champagne became the ‘dinner wine of the elite – drunk with roast meat and savoury dishes. Contemporaries accepted that while most people could distinguish the taste of good champagne from that of bad, very few could distinguish very good from good.

OPTIMIZING THE IDENTIFICATION OF NEW THIOLS AT TRACE LEVEL IN AGED RED WINES USING NEW OAK WOOD FUNCTIONALISATION STRATEGY

During bottle aging, many thiol compounds are involved in the expression of bouquet of great aged red wines according to the quality of the closure.1,2 Identifying thiol compounds in red wines is a challenging task due several drawbacks including, the complexity of the matrix, the low concentration of these impact compounds and the amount of wine needed.3,4
This work aims to develop a new strategy based on the functionalisation of oak wood organic extracts with H₂S, to produce new thiols, in order to mimic what can happen in red wine during bottle aging. Following this approach and through sensory analysis experiments, we demonstrated that the vanilla-like aroma of fresh oak wood was transformed into intense “meaty” nuances similar to those found in old but non oxidized red wines.

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECT ON POLYPHENOLS OF GRIGNOLINO GRAPES (VITIS VINIFERA L.) IN HILLY ENVIRONMENT

Current changes of ecoclimatic indicators may cause significant variation in grapevine phenology and grape ripening. Climate change modifies several abiotic factors (e.g. temperature, sunlight radiation, water availability) during the grapevine growth cycle, having a direct impact on the phenological stages of the grapevine, modulating the metabolic profile of berries and activating the synthesis and accumulation of diverse compounds in the skin of berries, with consequences on the composition of the grapes.
The influence exerted by different meteorological conditions, during three consecutive years (2020-2022) on secondary metabolites such as the polyphenolic profile of Grignolino grapes was investigated. The samples were collected from three vineyards characterized by different microclimatic conditions mainly related to the vineyard aspect and to a different age of the plants.

HOW DO ROOTSTOCKS AFFECT CABERNET SAUVIGNON AROMATIC EXPRESSION?

Grape quality potential for wine production is strongly influenced by environmental parameters such as climate and agronomic factors such as rootstock. Several studies underline the effect of rootstock on vegetative growth of the scions [1] and on berry composition [2, 3] with an impact on wine quality. Rootstocks are promising agronomic tools for climate change adaptation and in most grape-growing regions the potential diversity of rootstocks is not fully used and only a few genotypes are planted. Little is known about the effect of rootstock genetic variability on the aromatic composition in wines; thus further investigations are needed.

Grouping Vitis vinifera grapevine varieties based on their aromatic composition

Climate change is likely to impact wine typicity across the globe, raising concerns in wine regions historically renowned for the quality of their terroir1. Amongst several changes in viticultural practices, replacing some of the planting material (i.e. clones, rootstocks and cultivars) is thought to be one of the most promising potential levers to be used for adapting to climate change. But the change of cultivars also involves the issue of protecting the region’s wine typicity. In Bordeaux (France), extensive research has been conducted on identifying meridional varieties that could be good candidates to help guard against the effects of climate change2 while less research has been done concerning their impacts on Bordeaux wine typicity.