terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 ACIDIC AND DEMALIC SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS FOR MANAGING PROBLEMS OF ACIDITY DURING THE ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

ACIDIC AND DEMALIC SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS FOR MANAGING PROBLEMS OF ACIDITY DURING THE ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

Abstract

In a recent study several genes controlling the acidification properties of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified by a QTL approach [1]. Many of these genes showed allelic variations that affect the metabolism of malic acid and the pH homeostasis during the alcoholic fermentation. Such alleles have been used for driving genetic selection of new S. cerevisiae starters that may conversely acidify or deacidify the wine by producing or consuming large amount of malic acid [2]. This particular feature drastically modulates the final pH of wine with difference of 0.5 units between the two groups. Such extreme strains called ACIDIC or DEMALIC have been compared in several grape juices in order to evaluate their technological and sensorial impact on the resulting wines. Beside routine phenotypic characterization (fermentation kinetics and basic enological analyses), targeted NMR metabolomic as well as LC-MS non targeted metabolomics were used for characterizing such group of strains. These ACIDIC or DEMALIC strains definitively challenge a wide range of industrial starters and provide new tools for managing the rising problem of acidity in the context of global warming change.

1. Peltier E, Vion C, Abou Saada O, Friedrich A, Schacherer J, Marullo P. Flor Yeasts Rewire the Central Carbon Metabolism During Wine Alcoholic Fermentation. Front Fungal Biol. 2021;2. doi:10.3389/ffunb.2021.733513

2. Vion C, Peltier E, Bernard M, Muro M, Marullo P. Marker Assisted Selection of malic-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for winemaking. Efficiency and limits of a QTL’s driven breeding program. J Fungi. 2021;7: 1–25. doi:10.20944/pre- prints202103.0132.v1

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Charlotte Vion 1,2, Marie Le Scanff 2, Muro Maïtena1,2, Bernard Margaux1,2, Richard Bruce1,2, Fautré Valentine1,2, Coulon Joana1, Pel- tier Emilien1,2, Le Mao Inès2, Richard Tristan2, Da Costa Grégory2, Marchal Axel2, Marullo Philippe1,2

1 Biolaffort, Bordeaux, FRANCE
2 UMR 1366 Œnologie, Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, Bordeaux Science Agro, Bordeaux INP, ISVV

Contact the author*

Keywords

Acidity perception, Malic acid, Wine yeast

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

PROGRESS OF STUDIES OF LEES ORIGINATING FROM THE FIRST ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES

Champagne wines are produced via a two-step process: the first is an initial alcoholic fermentation of grape must that produces a still base wine, followed by a second fermentation in bottle – the prise de mousse – that produces the effervescence. This appellation produces non-vintage sparkling wines composed of still base wines assembled from different vintages, varieties, and regions. These base wines, or “reserve wines,” are typically conserved on their fine lies and used to compensate for quality variance between vintages (1). Continuously blending small amounts of these reserve wines into newer ones also facilitates preserving the producer’s “house style.”

PHOTO OXIDATION OF LUGANA WINES: INFLUENCE OF YEASTS AND RESIDUAL NITROGEN ON VSCS PROFILE

Lugana wines are made from Turbiana grapes. In recent times, many white and rosé wines are bottled and stored in flint glass bottles because of commercial appeal. However, this practice could worsen the aroma profile of the wine, especially as regards the development of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). This study aims to investigate the consequences of exposure to light in flint bottles on VSCs profile of Lugana wines fermented with two different yeasts and with different post-fermentation residual nitrogen.

NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE FATE OF MARKERS INVOLVED IN FRESH MUSHROOM OFF-FLAVOURS DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

The fresh mushroom off-flavour (FMOff) has been appearing in wines since the 2000s. Some C8 compounds such as 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hydroxyoctan-3-one, 3-octanol and others are involved in this specific off-flavour [1-3]. At the same time, glycosidic precursors of some FMOff compounds have been identified in musts contaminated by Crustomyces subabruptus [4], highlighting the role of aroma precursors in this specific taint. However, the fate of these volatile molecules and glycosidic fractions during fermentation is not well known.

METHYL SALICYLATE, A COMPOUND INVOLVED IN BORDEAUX RED WINES PRODUCED WITHOUT SULFITES ADDITION

Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is the most commonly used additive during winemaking to protect wine from oxidation and from microorganisms. Thus, since the 18th century, SO₂ was almost systematically present in wines. Recently, wines produced without any addition of SO₂ during all the winemaking process including bottling became more and more popular for consumers. A recent study dedicated to sensory characterization of Bordeaux red wines produced without added SO₂, revealed that such wines were perceived differently from similar wines produced with using SO₂ and were characterized by specific fruity aromas and coolness1,2.

WINE WITHOUT ADDED SO₂: OXYGEN IMPACT AND EVOLUTION ON THE POLYPHENOLIC COMPOSITION DURING RED WINE AGING

SO₂ play a major role in the stability and wine during storage. Nowadays, the reduction of chemical input during red winemaking and especially the removing SO₂ is a growing expectation from the consumers. Winemaking without SO₂ is a big challenge for the winemakers since the lack of SO₂ affects directly the wine chemical evolution such as the phenolic compounds as well as its microbiological stability.