terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 INOCULATION OF THE SELECTED METSCHNIKOWIA PULCHERRIMA MP1 AS A BIOPROTECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO SULFITES TO PREVENT BROWNING OF WHITE GRAPE MUST

INOCULATION OF THE SELECTED METSCHNIKOWIA PULCHERRIMA MP1 AS A BIOPROTECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO SULFITES TO PREVENT BROWNING OF WHITE GRAPE MUST

Abstract

Enzymatic browning (BE) of must is caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), tyrosinase and laccase. Both PPOs can oxidize diphenols such as hydroxycinnamic acids (HA) to quinones, which can later polymerize to form melanins [1], which are responsible of BE in white wines and of oxidasic haze in red wines. SO₂ is the main tool used to protect must from BE thanks to its capacity to inhibit PPOs [2]. However, the current trend in winemaking is to reduce and even eliminate this unfriendly additive. Among the different possible alternatives for protecting must against BE, the inoculation with a selected Metschnikowia pulcherrima MP1 is without any doubt one of the most promising ones.
For that purpose, white grapes were harvested, pressed and diluted 5 times with a model grape must synthetic buffer at pH = 3.50 and supplemented or not with 20 mg/L of SO₂, 2 UA/mL of laccase activity and 250 mg/L of the selected M. pulcherrima MP1 (Level2 Initia™, Lallemand Inc, Montreal, Canada). Immediately, the samples were saturated with O₂ and its concentration was noninvasively monitored overtime by luminescence (Nomasense TM O₂ Trace Oxygen Analyzer by Nomacorc S.A., Thimister Clermont, Belgium) [3]. Once oxygen consumption attained an asymptotic behavior the samples were used for color analysis [4] and for HPLC analysis of HA [5].
As expected, in the absence of SO₂, the must actively consumed O₂ and HA, and it turned intensely brown whereas in the presence of SO₂, the O₂ consumption rate (OCR) was significant lower, the HA concentra- tion was maintained at significant higher levels and the yellow color intensity remained at low values. In presence of laccase, OCR and browning intensity were even higher than in control conditions and the supplementation with SO₂ reduced both parameters but not as much as in the control must. Inoculation with the selected M. pulcherrima MP1 increased significantly OCR and protected the must from BE since the final yellow color was significantly lower and the HA concentration significantly higher than in control conditions although this protection was not so effective as that of SO₂. It seems the- refore that selected M. pulcherrima MP1 consumes O₂ very effectively making that some of the initially dissolved O₂ is not consumed by PPOs. In the presence of laccase, the supplementation with MP also protected the must from browning but not so efficiently.
This data confirms that the use of the selected M. pulcherrima MP 1 can be an interesting tool for redu- cing the dose of SO₂ without affecting seriously its final color quality.
Acknowledges: This research was funded by CICYT (project RTI 2018-095658-B-C33).

 

1. Oliveira CM, Silva-Ferreira AC, De Freitas V, Silva AM (2011) Food Res Int 44:1115-1126.
2. Ough, C.S., Crowell, E.A. (1987) J. Food Sci., 52, 386-389.
3. Pons-Mercadé P, Anguela S, Giménez P, Heras JM, Sieczkowski N, Rozès N, Canals JM, Zamora F (2021) Oeno One 2:147-158.
4. Ayala F, Echavarri JF, Negueruela AI (1997) Am J Enol Vitic 48:364-369.
5. Lago-Vanzela, E.S., Da-Silva, R., Gomes, E., García-Romero, E., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I. (2011) J. Agric. Food Chem., 59, 8314−8323. 

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Marco Bustamante¹, Pol Giménez¹, Arnau Just-Borras¹, Ignasi Solé-Clua¹, Jordi Gombau¹, José M. Heras², Nathalie Sieczkowski², Mariona Gil³, Joan Miquel Canals¹, Fernando Zamora1*

1. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia de Tarragona, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcel.li Domingo 1, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
2. Lallemand Bio S.L. C/ Galileu 303. 1ª planta. 08028-Barcelona, Spain
3. Instituto de Ciencias Químicas Aplicadas. Facultad de Ingenieria. Universidad Autónoma de Chile. Sede Santiago, Campus Providencia. Av. Pedro de Valdivia 425, Providencia, Santiago. Chile

Contact the author*

Keywords

Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Browning, SO₂ alternative, Bioprotection

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

IDENTIFICATION AND LEVELS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS (TANINS, ANTHO-CYANS) IN RED VARIETAL WINES (PROKUPAC AND BLACK TAMJANIKA) FROM SERBIA

The phenolic compounds of red wines represent a source of numerous benefits for human health, which is why they are a constant subject of scientific research. Winemaking in Serbia has a growing economic significance, with particularly autochthonous varieties included [1]. This research identifies and quantifies phenolic compounds of Serbian red varietal wines of Prokupac and Black Tamjanika varieties. Quantification of the level of phenolics has been conducted, including molecular tannins [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin dimers B1, B2, B3, B4], molecular anthocyanins, and the mean degree of polymerization of tannins by HPLC by UV detection, total antioxidant capacity via spectrophotometric methods and chromatic characteristics via CIELAB.

POTENTIAL OF PEPTIDASES FOR AVOIDING PROTEIN HAZES IN MUST AND WINE

Haze formation in wine during transportation and storage is an important issue for winemakers, since turbid wines are unacceptable for sale. Such haze often results from aggregation of unstable grape proteinaceous colloids. To date, foreseeably unstable wines need to be treated with bentonite to remove these, while excessive quantities, which are often required, affect the wine volume and quality (Cosme et al. 2020). One solution to avoid these drawbacks might be the use of peptidases. Marangon et al. (2012) reported that Aspergillopepsins I and II were able to hydrolyse the respective haze-relevant proteins in combination with a flash pasteurisation. In 2021, the OIV approved this enzymatic treatment for wine stabilisation (OIV-OENO 541A and 541B).

VOLTAMETRIC PROFILING OF RED WINE COMPOSITION DURING MACERATION: A STUDY ON FOUR GRAPE VARIETIES

During red wine vinification, maceration allows the must, and consequently the wine, to be enriched with several compounds that contribute to the creation of the typical organoleptic characteristics of red wines. Among these, extraction of polyphenols (PPs) during maceration is a major process of enological interest.
The purpose of this study was the evaluate the suitability of a rapid analytical approach based in linear sweep voltammetry to monitor PPs extraction during vinification.

ACIDIC AND DEMALIC SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS FOR MANAGING PROBLEMS OF ACIDITY DURING THE ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

In a recent study several genes controlling the acidification properties of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified by a QTL approach [1]. Many of these genes showed allelic variations that affect the metabolism of malic acid and the pH homeostasis during the alcoholic fermentation. Such alleles have been used for driving genetic selection of new S. cerevisiae starters that may conversely acidify or deacidify the wine by producing or consuming large amount of malic acid [2]. This particular feature drastically modulates the final pH of wine with difference of 0.5 units between the two groups.

ANTHOCYANINS EXTRACTION FROM GRAPE POMACE USING EUTECTIC SOLVENTS

Grape pomace is one of the main by-products generated after pressing in winemaking.Emerging methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction with eutectic mixtures, have great potential due to their low toxicity, and high biodegradability. Choline chloride (ChCl) was used as a hydrogen bond acceptor and its corresponding hydrogen bond donor (malic acid, citric acid, and glycerol: urea). Components were heated at 80 °C and stirred until a clear liquid was obtained. Distilled water was added (30 % v/v). A solid-liquid ratio of 1 g pomace per 10 ml of eutectic solvent was used.