ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION DRIVES THE SELECTION OF OENOCOCCUS OENI STRAINS IN WINE
Oenococcus oeni is the predominant lactic acid bacteria species in wine and cider, where it performs the malolactic fermentation (MLF) (Lonvaud-Funel, 1999). The O. oeni strains analyzed to date form four major genetic lineages named phylogroups A, B, C and D (Lorentzen et al., 2019). Most of the strains isolated from wine, cider, or kombucha belong to phylogroups A, B+C, and D, respectively, although B and C strains were also detected in wine (Campbell-Sills et al., 2015; Coton et al., 2017; Lorentzen et al., 2019; Sternes and Borneman, 2016). This study was performed to better understand the distribution of the phylogroups in wine and cider. Their population dynamics were determined by qPCR all through wine and cider productions, and the behavior of the strains was analyzed in synthetic wines and ciders. Phylogroups A, B and C were all represented in grape must and throughout the alcoholic fermentation, but on the transition to MLF, only phylogroup A remained at high levels in all wine productions. In the case of cider, phylogroups A, B and C were detected in stable levels during the process. When they were tested in synthetic wine and cider, all phylogroups performed MLF, but with different survival rates depending on the ethanol content. In this sense, ethanol and fermentation kinetics are the main agent that drives the selection of phylogroup A strains in wine, while B and C strains dominates in cider containing less ethanol.
Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023
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Oenococcus oeni, Malolactic fermentation, Population dynamics, phylogroups