OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Analytical developments from grape to wine, spirits : omics, chemometrics approaches… 9 LC-MS based metabolomics and target analysis to study the chemical evolution of wines stored under different redox conditions

LC-MS based metabolomics and target analysis to study the chemical evolution of wines stored under different redox conditions

Abstract

Oxygen is a key player in oenology, since its effects can be a blessing, benefiting wine quality, or a curse causing irreversible damage. Therefore, many modern winemaking choices tend to favor reduction, even if the severe lack of oxygen can be responsible for a loss in quality due to the formation of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs) able to cause aroma depreciation, such as H2S and MeSH. The aim of this study was to measure the changes caused to the metabolic space of several red and white wines stored under different levels of oxidative or reductive conditions.

Twelve wines (8 reds and 4 whites) were stored in strict anoxic conditions at 25 ºC (1, 2 and 3 months) and also at 35 ºC for 3 months. Aliquots of the same wines were also micro-oxygenated at 25 ºC during 3 months at different doses of oxygen. The redox potential of all samples was measured and then they were analyzed with an untargeted approach protocol by using an UPLC-HRMS-QTOF instrument to register their metabolic fingerprint; and with a targeted method by using a GC-SCD instrument to analyze the free and Brine Releasable (BR) forms of VSCs. A typical in-house workflow for the data analysis of the metabolic data was used for the quality control of the data-set and for the biomarker discovery and annotation.

The redox potential measurements indicated the reliability of the sample set, since as expected it increased in the presence of oxygen and decreased in anoxic conditions. The LC-MS untargeted analysis generated a dataset of over 10000 features, which after the statistical analysis our attention was focused to approximately 150 tentative markers. These markers were classified in four groups depending on their behaviour under the different conditions. Between the markers were annotated various anthocyanins, such as peonidin 3-glucoside-catechin which decreased under oxidative conditions but remained stable in reduced samples. By contrast, malvidin 3-glucoside decreased also under anoxic conditions although at lower rates with respect to oxidative conditions. Some sulfonated indoles were identified as markers of oxidation conditions. As far as the free VSCs, the highest concentrations were determined in the more reduced samples. The study provides a new understanding about the role of oxygen and of its absence in wine aging.

Acknowledgements

Work funded by the Spanish MCIU AGL2017-87373-C3-1R. I.O. received the grant (CB 8/18) from “Programa Ibercaja-CAI Estancias de Investigación” funded by Universidad de Zaragoza, Fundación Bancaria Ibercaja and Fundación CAI.

DOI:

Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Ignacio Ontañón, Diego Sánchez, Fulvio Mattivi, Vicente Ferreira, Panagiotis Arapitsas

Laboratorio de Análisis del Aroma y Enología. Departamento de Química Analítica. Facultad de Ciencias. Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón –IA2- (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA). C/ Pedro Cerbuna, 12. 50009. Zaragoza, Spain.
Research and Innovation Centre, Food Quality and Nutrition Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
Center Agriculture Food Environment, University of Trento, San Michele all’Adige, Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

Oxidation, Reduction, Metabolomics, VSCs 

Tags

IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019

Citation

Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.