THE FLAVANOL PROFILE OF SKIN, SEED, WINES, AND POMACE ARE CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH TYPOLOGY AND CONTRIBUTES TO UNDERSTAND THE FLAVAN- 3-OLS EXTRACTION DURING RED WINEMAKING
Wine flavanols are extracted from grape skin and seeds along red winemaking. Potentially, eight flavan-3-ol subunits may be present as monomers or as tannins constituents, being these catechin, epicathechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin end the gallates of the mentioned units. In this work the flavanol profiles of grape skins and seeds before (grapes) and after (pomace) red winemaking were studied together with the one in the corresponding wines. The trials were made over two vintages in Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat, Syrah and Marselan from Uruguay. A total of twenty wines were made under the same experimental conditions. The flavanol fractions were isolated from the samples using C18 solid phase extraction cartridges. A LC-MS system was used for analysis, composed by an HPLC couples to a mass spectroscopy system (triple-quadrupole ESI-MS/MS). Catechin and epicatechin registered the higher relative abundance in all typologies as expected. In the skins, the percentage of catechin was significantly higher than that of epicatechin while the opposite was observed in the seeds. In agreement with literature, the relative proportion of gallates was much higher in the seed than in the skins, while pro-dephinidins (PD%) exceeded 10% in skins and were found at traces levels in seeds. There were no differences among cultivars in the skins flavanol profile, but in the seeds, Marselan had a characteristic high proportion of catechin that almost matched that of epicatechin. Moreover, Tannat had higher proportion of epicatechin-gallate than catechin-gallate, while the opposite was registered in Syrah and Marselan. The seed-pomace flavan-3-ol monomers profile matched that of the seeds in the three-cultivar studied, showing that all compounds were extracted at the same rate along maceration. Nevertheless, the skin-pomace had a much higher proportion of epicatechin and of gallates that observed in skins, and a much lower of PD. These differences were of higher magnitude in the flavan-3-ol monomers profile, and in Marselan, which wines had a much higher contribution of flavanols from the seeds (observed as low PD% and high of gallates and epicatechin) than Tannat and Syrah. In Syrah and Tannat wines, the PD% was just slightly lower than in skins, while in Marselan they were much lower. Thus, skins adsorb fla-vanols released from seeds during maceration, while the trihydroxylated prodelphinidin monomers are the more easily extracted flavanols from skins.
Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023
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Tannins, Flavanols, Winemaking, Extraction