GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2019 9 Climate change 9 The temperature‐based grapevine sugar ripeness (GSR) model for adapting a wide range of Vitis vinifera L. cultivars in a changing climate

The temperature‐based grapevine sugar ripeness (GSR) model for adapting a wide range of Vitis vinifera L. cultivars in a changing climate


Context and purpose of the study ‐ Temperatures are increasing due to climate change leading to advances in grapevine phenology and sugar accumulation in grape berries. This study aims (i) to develop a temperature‐based model that can predict a range of target sugar concentrations for various cultivars of Vitis vinifera L and (ii) develop extensive classifications for the sugar ripeness of cultivars using the model.

Material and methods ‐ Time series of sugar concentrations were collected from research institutes, extension services and private companies from various European countries. The Day of the Year (DOY) to reach the specified target sugar concentration (170, 180, 190, 200, 210, and 220 g/l) was determined and a range of models tested using these DOYs to develop the best fit model for Vitis vinifera L.

Results ‐ The best fit linear model– Growing Degree Days (parameters: base temperature (t0) = 0°C, start date (Tb) = 91 or 1 April), Northern Hemisphere) – represented the model that required the least parameters and therefore the simplest in application. The model was used to characterise and classify a wide range of cultivars for DOY to reach target sugar concentrations.
The model is referred to as the Grapevine Sugar Ripeness Model (GSR). It is viticulturist‐ friendly as it’s simple in form (linear) and its growing degree day units are easily calculated by adding average temperatures (base temperature was optimized at 0°C) derived from weather stations from the 91th day of the year (Northern Hemisphere). The classifications based on this model can inform cultivar choice as an alternative adaptation strategy to climate change, where changing cultivars may prevent the harvesting of grapes at high sugar concentrations which leads to higher alcohol wines.


Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: GiESCO 2019

Type: Article


Amber K. PARKER (1), Inaki GARCÍA DE CORTÁZAR‐ATAURI (2), Laurence GÉNY (3), Jean‐Laurent SPRING (4), Agnès DESTRAC (5), Hans SCHULTZ (6), Manfred STOLL (6), Daniel MOLITOR (7), Thierry LACOMBE (8), Antonio GRACA (9), Christine MONAMY (10), Paolo STORCHI (11), Mike TROUGHT (12), Rainer HOFMANN (1), Cornelis VAN LEEUWEN (5)

(1) Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand
(2) Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), US 1116 AGROCLIM, F-84914 Avignon, France
(3) Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Université de Bordeaux, Unité de Recherche Oenologie EA 4577 – USC 1366 INRA, 210 chemin de Leysotte – CS 50008, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon cedex
(4) Agroscope, Av. de Rochettaz 21,1009 Pully, Switzerland
(5) EGFV, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon, France
(6) Hochschule, Giesenheim University, Von-Lade-Straße 1, D-65366 Geisenheim
(7) Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belva, Luxembourg
(8) Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), AGAP, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, 2 place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier, France
(9) Sogrape Vinhos S.A., R. 5 de Outubro 558, 4430-809 Avintes, Portugal
(10) Bureau Interprofessionnel des Vins de Bourgogne – BIVB, 12 boulevard Bretonnière, 21200, Beaune, France
(11) CREA – Centro di ricerca Viticoltura ed Enologia, Viale Santa Margherita 80 52100 – Arezzo, Italy 12The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Blenheim 7240, New Zealand, Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand

Contact the author


modelling, temperature, sugar, cultivars, climate change


GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Teasing apart terroir: the influence of management style on native yeast communities within Oregon wineries and vineyards

Newer sequencing technologies have allowed for the addition of microbes to the story of terroir. The same environmental factors that influence the phenotypic expression of a crop also shape the composition of the microbial communities found on that crop. For fermented goods, such as wine, that microbial community ultimately influences the organoleptic properties of the final product that is delivered to customers. Recent studies have begun to study the biogeography of wine-associated microbes within different growing regions, finding that communities are distinct across landscapes. Despite this new knowledge, there are still many questions about what factors drive these differences. Our goal was to quantify differences in yeast communities due to management style between seven pairs of conventional and biodynamic vineyards (14 in total) throughout Oregon, USA. We wanted to answer the following questions: 1) are yeast communities distinct between biodynamic vineyards and conventional vineyards? 2) are these differences consistent across a large geographic region? 3) can differences in yeast communities be tied to differences in metabolite profiles of the bottled wine? To collect our data we took soil, bark, leaf, and grape samples from within each vineyard from five different vines of pinot noir. We also collected must and a 10º brix sample from each winery. Using these samples, we performed 18S amplicon sequencing to identify the yeast present. We then used metabolomics to characterize the organoleptic compounds present in the bottled wine from the blocks the year that we sampled. We are actively in the process of analysing our data from this study.

Does the sustainability perception depend on the Terroir?

The main scope of this research has been to investigate what values are attributed to the concept of “sustainability” by the wine producers of two different wine territories of Piedmont; the terroir of the Barolo DOCG and the the terroir of the Gavi DOCG. The research wants to emphasize how much the characteristic elements of each terroir influence the perception of the concept of sustainability among producers.

Riqualificazione dell’antica “Terra di Lavoro” attraverso il rilancio della cultivar Abbuoto

L’agricoltura dei territori costituenti l’antica “Terra di Lavoro”, territorio che oggi è compreso nella provincia di Caserta ed in parte di quelle di Frosinone e Latina, ha subito a partire dal 1970

The concept of « terroir »: what does that mean ? What is it useful for ? French young adults perception

Far from complicated discussions on the relevant way to define « terroir », this article deals with the social perception that French young adults (aged from 18 to 30) have of this concept and the way it can help them to become wine consumers.

Applications of a novel molecular phenology scale to align the stages of grape berry development

Phenology scales widely adopted by viticulturists (i.e., BBCH or modified E-L systems) are classification tools that describe seasonal and precisely recognized stages of fruit growth and development based on specific descriptors such as visual/physical traits or easy-to-measure compositional parameters.