terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OPTIMISATION OF THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF UGNI BLANC WINE DISTILLATE THROUGH THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

OPTIMISATION OF THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF UGNI BLANC WINE DISTILLATE THROUGH THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

Abstract

The online monitoring of fermentative aromas provides a better understanding of the effect of temperature on the synthesis and the loss of these molecules. During fermentation, gas and liquid phase concentrations as well as losses and total productions of volatile compounds can be followed with an unprecedented acquisition frequency of about one measurement per hour. Access to instantaneous production rates and total production balances for the various volatile compounds makes it possible to distinguish the impact of temperature on yeast production (biological effect) from the loss of aromatic molecules due to a physical effect³. Up to now, this innovative approach has been carried out successfully on isothermal fermentations1,2. Elucidating the role of anisothermal fermentation temperature profiles is a crucial issue that may lead to a deeper understanding of the influence of temperature on yeast metabolism in relation to the synthesis of aromatic molecules. In this study, results from different temperature control strategies of fermentation with increasing and decreasing profiles are explored. These fermentations were carried out on a laboratory scale with the online monitoring tool for alcoholic fermentation leading to a powerful dataset concerning higher alcohols, acetate and ethyl esters. The anisothermal control of the fermentation temperature shows that the production of higher alcohols is slowed down with the lowering of the temperature profiles and inversely for the ascending profiles. For isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate, with ascending temperature profiles, larger losses are entailed with increasing temperature during fermentation and therefore the concentration in the liquid decreases. Obviously, the phenomenon is reversed for the descending profiles which allow to combine a better production of esters with an optimized conservation in liquid phase until the end of the alcoholic fermentation while minimizing the synthesis of higher alcohols. In strong concentrations, these alcohols may represent an organoleptic defect, especially for the distillation wines in Charente⁴. After the fermentation step, the wines were microdistilled with their lees in order to reproduce the conditions of distillation in Charente. Thanks to this step, it was possible to note the aromatic richness of the lees concerning the heavy ethyl esters⁵. Moreover, the impact of the anisothermal temperature profiles quoted above is also confirmed on the aromas released from the lees by the heating process of the distillation.

 

1. Mouret, J. R.; Perez, M.; Angenieux, M.; Nicolle, P.; Farines, V.; Sablayrolles, J. M. Online-Based Kinetic Analysis of Higher Alcohol and Ester Synthesis During Winemaking Fermentations. Food Bioprocess Technol 2014, 7 (5), 1235–1245. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11947-013-1089-5.
2. Mouret, J. R.; Camarasa, C.; Angenieux, M.; Aguera, E.; Perez, M.; Farines, V.; Sablayrolles, J. M. Kinetic Analysis and Gas–Liquid Balances of the Production of Fermentative Aromas during Winemaking Fermentations: Effect of Assimilable Nitrogen and Temperature. Food Research International 2014, 62, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.044.
3. Mouret, J.-R.; Aguera, E.; Perez, M.; Farines, V.; Sablayrolles, J.-M. Study of Oenological Fermentation: Which Strategy and Which Tools? Fermentation 2021, 7 (3), 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030155.
4. Sarvarova, N. N.; Cherkashina, Yu. A.; Evgen’ev, M. I. Application of Chromatographic Methods to the Determination of Cognac Quality Indicators. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2011, 66 (12), 1190–1195. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1061934811120094.
5. Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Es-ter Production by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae during Fermentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008, 74 (2), 454–461. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01616-07.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Charlie Guittin1,2, Faïza Maçna¹, Christian Picou¹, Marc Perez¹, Adeline Barreau², Xavier Poitou², Jean-Roch Mouret¹, Vincent Farines¹

1. SPO, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France
2. R&D department, Jas Hennessy & Co, Cognac, France

Contact the author*

Keywords

Online monitoring of aromas, Anisothermal temperature, Lees, Distillation

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

IMPACT OF CLIMATIC ZONES ON THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF CORVINA WINES IN THE VALPOLICELLA REGION

In Italy, in the past two decades, the rate of temperature increases (0.0369 °C per year) was slightly higher compared to the world average (0.0313 °C per year). It has also been indicated that the number and intensity of heat waves have increased considerably in the last decades. (IEA, 2022). Viticultural zones can be classified with climatic indexes. Huglin’s index (HI) considers the temperature in a definite area and has been considered as reliable to evaluate the thermal suitability for winegrape production (Zhang et al., 2023).

BIOSORPTION OF UNDESIRABLE COMPONENTS FROM WINE BY YEAST-DERIVED PRODUCTS

4-Ethylphenol (EP) in wine is associated with organoleptic defects such as barn and horse sweat odors. The origin of EP is the bioconversion reaction of p-coumaric acid (CA), naturally present in grapes and grape musts by contaminating yeasts of the genus Brettanomyces bruxellensis.
Yeast cell walls (YCW) have shown adsorption capacities for different compounds. They could be applied to wines in order to adsorb either CA and/or EP and thus reduce the organoleptic defects caused by the contaminating yeasts.

FLOW CYTOMETRY, A POWERFUL AND SUSTAINABLE METHOD WITH MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS IN ENOLOGY

Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing the detection, characterization and quantification of microbial populations in different fields of application (medical environment, food industry, enology, etc.). Depending on the fluorescent markers and specific probes used, FCM provides information on the physiological state of the cell and allows the quantification of a microorganism of interest within a mixed population. For 15 years, the enological sector has shown growing interest in this technique, which is now used to determine the populations present (of interest or spoilage) and the physiological state of microorganisms at the different stages of winemaking.

INVESTIGATION OF FILM COATINGS AS A PROTECTIVE LAYER IN REDUCING THE ABSORPTION OF SMOKE PHENOLS INTO PINOT NOIR GRAPES

Wine grapes exposed to wildfire smoke have resulted in wines with burnt and ashy sensory characteristics¹, that are undesirable qualities in wine. In extreme wildfire events, this can lead to total loss of grape crop. Currently there are no effective solutions in the market to prevent the uptake of smoke compounds into grapes. In this study, previously developed innovative film coatings were tested to analyze their effectiveness in reducing smoke phenol absorption². Four different cellulose nanofiber-based film types were investigated.

EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).