GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 Service crop effects on grapevine water and nitrogen status and yield under Mediterranean climate

Service crop effects on grapevine water and nitrogen status and yield under Mediterranean climate

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – Service crops in vineyard can provide multiple ecosystem services but they can also lead to competition with the grapevine for soil resources in the Mediterranean region due to potential severe droughts (Garcia et al., 2018). One of the levers of action to manage this competition is the choice of species adapted in terms of growth dynamics and water and nutrients’ needs. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of temporary service crops on grapevine water and nitrogen status and grapevine yield and yield components in a Mediterranean vineyard.

Material and methods – The experiment was carried out for two consecutive years in a vineyard located in the south of France on a calcaric cambisol under a Mediterranean climate (468 and 487 mm of rainfall for 2016-17 and 2017-18 winters respectively). Grapevines (Mourvèdre) were planted in 2008 at a density of 4000 vines per hectare. For the two consecutive years, 9 species (Achillea millefolium, Avena sativa, Dactylis glomerata, Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Plantago coronopus, Poterium sanguisorba, Trifolium fragiferum and Vicia villosa) were sown after harvest and destroyed after budburst. Predawn leaf water potential and leaf chlorophyll content were measured using a pressure chamber and a SPAD© chloprophyll-meter device for all treatments (9 service crops, spontaneous vegetation and bare soil) on 10 plants at grapevine’s fruit set to assess early water and nitrogen status of the vine. At harvest, the yield and yield components’ grapevine were measured for all treatments on the same plants. All treatments were compared with tilled and spontaneous cover systems using ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests form multiple comparison of means (p<0,05).

Results– At fruit set, the leaf water potentials indicated an absent to low stress depending on the treatment: Plantago coronopus (-1,6.105 Pa) and Poterium sanguisorba (2,8.105 Pa) were the least and the most constrained treatments respectively. The range of SPAD values between 34 and 39 indicated that nitrogen needs are met (higher values for Vicia sativa and lower values for Dactylis glomerata and Poterium sanguisorba). At harvest, the mean yields and the mean number of bunches per plant ranged from 2,8 to 4,4 kg of grapes and from 12,8 to 17,3 respectively, without any significant difference between the treatments. The only significant difference was observed for bunch fresh weight (Avena sativa (288 g) significantly higher than Poterium Sanguisorba (156 g)). In conclusion, after two years of temporary service crop, no significant reduction in yield was noticed, but the treatments were differentiated for their water and nitrogen status, and for the fresh mass of a bunch depending on the chosen species. Our results reinforce the need for long-term monitoring of service crop trials in vineyards.

DOI:

Publication date: March 12, 2024

Issue: GiESCO 2019

Type: Poster

Authors

Aurélie METAY, Léo GARCIA, Yvan BOUISSON, Clément ENARD, Bénédicte OHL, Raphaël METRAL, Christian GARY

1 UMR SYSTEM, Montpellier SupAgro, INRA, CIRAD, CIHEAM-IAMM, Univ Montpellier, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier, France

Contact the author

Keywords

Grapevine, Service Crop, Yield, Predawn Leaf Water Potential, Nitrogen, Competition

Tags

GiESCO | GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

The adaptative capacity of a viticultural area (Valle Telesina, Southern Italy) to climate changes

The viticulture aiming at the production of high quality wine is very important for the landscape conservation, because it allows to combine high farmer income with soil conservation

Characterization of the thiol aromatic potential of a new resistant grape variety: Floreal

Aims: Due to climate change and the desire to decrease enological inputs (organic farming), the vineyard has to be modified and the selection of new resistant grape varieties as an alternative is researched intensively today. From January 2018, four new grape varieties that are resistant against mildew and odium have been added to the official

Use of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (ML PrimeTm) to improve malolactic fermentation of catarratto wine subjected to long post-fermentative maceration.

AIM: Lactiplantibacillus plantarum species is wordwide used as starter for malolactic fermentation [1,2]. For the first time, in the present study, the use of L. plantarum (ML PrimeTM, Lallemand wine) to produce white wines with post-fermentative maceration extended until 60 days has been investigated.

Isohydric and anisohydric behavior of 18 wine grape varieties grown in an arid climate

The interest in understanding the water balance of terrestrial plants under drought has led to the creation of the isohydric/anisohydric terminology. The classification was related to an implication-driven framework, where isohydric plants maintain a constant and high leaf water potential through an early and intense closure of their stomata, hence risking carbon starvation. In contrast, anisohydric plants drop their leaf water potential to low values as soil drought is establishing due to insensitive stomata and thus risk mortality through hydraulic failure, albeit maximizing carbon intake. When applied to grapevines, this framework has been elusive, yielding discrepancies in the classification of different wine grape varieties around the world.

Assay of distinct modes of polysaccharidases dosage in vinification with cv. Malbec. Effects on microbiological evolution, color and skin depletion

In the maceration stage of winemaking, enzymes can be used to degrade the polysaccharides present in the cell walls and middle sheets, and thus facilitate the extraction of juice and the release of polyphenols and aroma precursors retained in the grape skins.