The components and methodology for characterization of the terroir have been described by Gómez-Miguel & Sotés (1993-2014, 2003) and Gómez-Miguel (2011) taking into account the full range of environmental factors (i.e: climate, lithology, vegetation, topography, soils, altitude, etc.), landscape variables (derived from photo-interpretation and a digital elevation model), and specific variables to the country’s viticulture (i.e: size and distribution of the vineyards, varieties, phenology, productivity, quality, designation regulations, etc.).
This methodology describes: the integration of the resulting database in a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows the spatial and statistical analysis of all variables; the parametric system of variable quantification; the selection of main endogenous and exogenous variables for terroir characterization; and the role of the all variables in the final results. The analysis has been carried out on over 4,5 million ha.
This paper presents the results (1:25.000) of a case studied in the Northeast Spain. The Campo de Borja region (DO Campo de Borja, Spain) expands on 65 240 ha and includes 6 815 ha (2012) of vineyards (figure 1). The observed distribution of vineyards in this county is correlated to the integrated landscape-terrain classification and productivity but does not depend on the total available area for cultivation. The results of the final study have general implications for terroir zoning in the region and define a set of methodological guidelines: a) definition of the set of variables that define the terroir b) definition of the Homogeneous Terroir Units (HTU); c) characterization of the homogeneous environmental terroir units; d) final zoning: integration of the HTU with the plant (variety and rootstock) and the product (must and wine).
This paper describes the role of the vegetation (figure 2A) and the climate (figure 2) as active factors upon the lithology (lithological groups, figure 4)) and the geomorphology (geophorms, drainage, altitude, slope, figure 5-8) as passive factors in the terroir configuration in the DO Campo de Borja (Spain).
Authors: Vicente GÓMEZ-MIGUEL, Vicente SOTÉS, Joaquín CÁMARA, Álvaro MARTÍNEZ
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid; c/ Puerta de Hierro, 2; 28040-Madrid, Spain
Keywords: terroir, zoning, landscape, lithology, climate, soil, Geographic Information System, Campo de Borja, Spain