Terroir 2020 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Terroir Conferences 9 Terroir 2020 9 History and innovation of terroir 9 Comparison between satellite and ground data with UAV-based information to analyse vineyard spatio-temporal variability

Comparison between satellite and ground data with UAV-based information to analyse vineyard spatio-temporal variability


OENO One special issue

Currently, the greatest challenge for vine growers is to improve the yield and quality of grapes by minimizing costs and environmental impacts. This goal can be achieved through a better knowledge of vineyard spatial variability. Traditional platforms such as airborne, satellite and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) solutions are useful investigation tools for vineyard site specific management. These remote sensing techniques are mainly exploited to get the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is useful for describing the morpho-vegetational characteristics of vineyards. This study was conducted in a vineyard in Tuscany (Italy) during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 seasons. Ground data were acquired to detect some agronomic variables such as yield (kg/vine), total soluble solids (TSS), and pruning weight (kg/vine). Remote sensed multispectral images acquired by UAV and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite platform were used to assess the analysis of the vegetative variability. The UAV NDVI was extracted using both a mixed pixels approach (both vine and inter-row) and from pure canopy pixels. In addition to these UAV layers, the vine thickness was extracted. The aim of this study was to evaluate both classical Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and spatial statistical methods (Moran Index-MI and BILISA) to assess their performance in a multi-temporal comparison between satellite and ground data with UAV information. Good correlations were detected between S2 NDVI and UAV NDVI mixed pixels through both methods (R2 = 0.80 and MI = 0.75). Regarding ground data, UAV layers showed low and negative association with TSS (MI = – 0.34 was the lowest value) whereas better spatial autocorrelations with positive values were detected between UAV layers and both yield (MI ranged from 0.42 to 0.52) and pruning weight (MI ranged from 0.45 to 0.64). The spatial analysis made by MI and BILISA methodologies added more information to this study, clearly showing that both UAV and Sentinel-2 satellite allowed the vigour spatial variability within the vineyard to be detected correctly, overcoming the classical comparison methods by adding the spatial effect. MI and BILISA play a key role in identifying spatial patterns and could be successfully exploited by agricultural stakeholders.


Publication date: March 19, 2021

Issue: Terroir 2020

Type: Video


Laura Pastonchi, Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro*, Piero Toscano and Alessandro Matese

Institute of BioEconomy, National Research Council (CNR-IBE), Via G. Caproni, 8, 50145 6 Florence, Italy

Contact the author


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Sentinel-2 data precision viticulture, Moran’s index (MI), Local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA), vineyard variability


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2020


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.