Terroir 2020 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Potential application of indigenous Pichia kluyveri for enhanced wine aroma quality

Potential application of indigenous Pichia kluyveri for enhanced wine aroma quality


Aims: In previous work, five indigenous Pichia kluyveri strains, GS1-1, FS-2-7, HS-2-1, C730 and C732, were isolated and selected from spontaneous fermented wines from Ningxia and Gansu. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate resistance of these strains to environmental stressors that may restrict their growth and the progress of alcoholic fermentation; 2) Investigate their fermentation dynamics; 3) Characterise aroma profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines made from mixed cultures of P. kluyveri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Methods and Results: Tolerance assays were conducted in YEPD medium to test resistance of each Pichia kluyveri strain to sugar, pH, ethanol, temperature and free SO2. All strains except FS-2-7 were able to tolerate 60% w/v glucose, low pH of 2.0, 16% v/v ethanol, extreme fermentation temperatures (11˚C and 44˚C), and 500 mg/L total SO2. Following this, these strains were inoculated into a synthetic grape juice medium to test their fermentation performance and evaluate basic parameters of the final synthetic wine. Strain HS-2-1 was the first to initiate fermentation, and produced significantly higher amounts of total organic acids and less volatile acids compared to other strains. Thus, strain HS-2-1 was chosen for further characterisation in Cabernet Sauvignon fermentation trials co-fermented with S. cerevisiae NX11424 at different ratios. Viable yeast cell numbers were determined by plate counting. Yeast-derived volatile compounds of the final wine were analysed using head space-solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Mixed fermentation did not inhibit HS-2-1 growth, and also produced less volatile acid, and significantly more esters and higher alcohols compared to single fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Notably, concentrations of isopentanol, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 9-decenoate and ethyl lactate increased in line with the increased proportion of HS-2-1 in the inoculum.


This study shows indigenous P. kluyveri HS-2-1 has good resistance to alcoholic fermentation associated common stressors, better fermentation performance, and excellent oenological characteristics when co-fermenting with S. cerevisiae

Significance and Impact of the Study: Chinese wine regions such as Ningxia and Gansu have developed dramatically in recent years. These wine regions are in great need to produce wines with typical regional characteristics. To promote regional typicity, using selected indigenous yeasts could introduce a unique local character or “terroir” during winemaking. Pichia kluyveri widely occurs at earlier stages of spontaneous fermentation, however limited research has been done on its oenological characteristics. This study comprehensively investigated the features of indigenous P. kluyveri strain(s), and highlighted the potential application of strain HS-2-1 in winemaking by co-fermenting with S. cerevisiae for improving the fruity and floral aroma profile of these Chinese wines.


Publication date: March 25, 2021

Issue: Terroir 2020

Type : Video


iao Jiang1, Wenjing Zhang1, Li Feng1, Dongqing Ye1, Yanlin Liu1,2*

1College of Enology, Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
2Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-viniculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China

Contact the author


Pichia kluyveri, stress tolerance, fermentation, volatile compounds, aroma  


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2020


Related articles…

Do natural wines differ from conventionally-produced wines?

In recent years, consumer awareness for consuming healthy and environmental sustainability products has considerably increased [1]. In an ever-changing and highly competitive environment such as the wine sector, production of wines without sulfites, or biodynamic, organic or vegan wines, has experienced an important increase to meet the new needs of consumers [2,3]. Beyond these categories of regulated products, a new concept has emerged: natural wines (NW), for which there is not an established definition or legal regulation. Rather, producers have a personal idea of naturalness under the premise of applying minimal intervention from grape to wine production [4]. In this context, it is hypothesized that self-defined natural wines are different from conventional wines (CW) in their sensory and chemical profile. The predicament of natural wine is based on anecdotic declarations and assumes that minimal intervention guarantees the production of wines with organoleptic properties able to express the “terroir” and thus promote wine diversity, plurality and sensory typicity against the risk of standardization of CW.

Crop water stress index as a tool to estimate vine water status

Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) has long been a ratio to quantify relative plant water status in several crop and woody plants. Given its rather well relationship to either leaf or stem water potential and the feasibility to sample big vineyard areas as well as to collect quite a huge quantity of data with airborne cameras and image processing applications, it is being studied as a tool for irrigation monitoring in commercial vineyards. The objective of this paper was to know if CWSI estimated by measuring leaf temperature with an infrared hand held camera could be used to substitute the measure of stem water potential (SWP) without losing accuracy of plant water status measure.

Nitrogen metabolism in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: towards a better understanding of fermentation aroma production

During wine alcoholic fermentation, yeasts produce volatile aroma compounds from sugar and nitrogen metabolism. Some of the metabolic pathways leading to these compounds have been known for more than a century.

Assay of distinct modes of polysaccharidases dosage in vinification with cv. Malbec. Effects on microbiological evolution, color and skin depletion

In the maceration stage of winemaking, enzymes can be used to degrade the polysaccharides present in the cell walls and middle sheets, and thus facilitate the extraction of juice and the release of polyphenols and aroma precursors retained in the grape skins.

Water is the most abundant active compound in wine!

Proton relaxation in model and real wines was investigated by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry. Albeit protons of wine are largely belonging to water molecules, their magnetic relaxation rates actually depend on various physico-chemical parameters related to the state of the wine and to its composition.